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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Al-Diab, A., Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. The influence of current sensor and MPP tracking on Energy yield for PV power systems 2010 Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower), 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on, pp. 1 -6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are employed in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power which depends on solar irradiance and temperature. Most of these techniques depend on the measurement of the current sensor which needs to be simulated on the design phase. Simulation tools like Matlab/SIMULINK, PSpice, Multisim.etc, don't simulate the practical behaviour of measurement devices and only deal with ideal characteristics which make it difficult to understand the exact response of such system on the operation mode. Current sensor model is implemented to enhance the design and the implementation of the proposed modified P amp;O algorithm. The algorithm is designed in order to overcome the drawbacks in traditional P amp;O MPPT algorithm. Varying the step size value and the sampling time reduces the oscillations around the MPP and leads to a faster response. When a step change in the solar irradiance occurs, the step size and sampling time are automatically tuned according to the operating point. If the operating point is far from the MPP, it increases the step size and decreases the sampling time which enables a fast tracking ability with smaller oscillation steps around the MPP.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-Diab:influenceofcurrent_2010,
  author = {Al-Diab, Ahmad and Bouabana, Abdoulkarim and Sourkounis, Constantinos},
  title = {The influence of current sensor and MPP tracking on Energy yield for PV power systems},
  booktitle = {Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower), 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1 -6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/cp.2010.0881}
}
Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Integration of flywheel energy storage system in production lines for voltage drop compensation 2011 IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 3882 -3887  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A novel flywheel energy storage system is proposed in this study. The energy storage system consists of a flywheel coupled to permanent magnets synchronous machine. The stored energy is used for drop correction for the critical load. In motoring mode (no drop on the grid), the grid connected converter lets the system deliver power and boosts the DC link voltage until the flywheel reaches the maximum speed. In generating mode, the grid connected converter supplies sinusoidal voltage to the grid. The permanent magnets synchronous machine is selected for the design of a threephase machine for the flywheel energy storage system and Hysteresis current control is used for controlling both converters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-Diab:Integrationofflywheel_2011,
  author = {Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Integration of flywheel energy storage system in production lines for voltage drop compensation},
  booktitle = {IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {3882 -3887},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2011.6119943}
}
Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Unbalanced voltage drops compensations using flywheel energy storage system 2011 Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on, pp. 1 -6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A novel flywheel energy storage system is proposed in this study. The energy storage system consists of a flywheel coupled to permanent magnets synchronous machine. The stored energy is used for an unbalanced drop correction for the critical load using Three-Leg Four-Wire Converter. In motoring mode (no drop on the grid), the grid connected converter lets the system deliver power and boosts the DC link voltage until the flywheel reaches the maximum speed. In generating mode, the grid connected converter supplies sinusoidal voltage to the grid. The permanent magnets synchronous machine is selected for the design of a three-phase machine for the flywheel energy storage system and space vector modulation is used for controlling both converters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-Diab:Unbalancedvoltagedrops_2011,
  author = {Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Unbalanced voltage drops compensations using flywheel energy storage system},
  booktitle = {Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1 -6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPQU.2011.6128849}
}
Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Voltage drops mitigations using flywheel energy storage system in production lines 2011 Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 2011 7th International Conference-Workshop, pp. 119 -124  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A novel flywheel energy storage system is proposed in this study. The energy storage system consists of a flywheel coupled to permanent magnets synchronous machine. The stored energy is used for drop correction for the critical load. In motoring mode (no drop on the grid), the grid connected converter lets the system deliver power and boosts the DC link voltage until the flywheel reaches the maximum speed. In generating mode, the grid connected converter supplies sinusoidal voltage to the grid. The permanent magnets synchronous machine is selected for the design of a three-phase machine for the flywheel energy storage system and Hysteresis current control is used for controlling both converters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-Diab:Voltagedropsmitigations_2011,
  author = {Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Voltage drops mitigations using flywheel energy storage system in production lines},
  booktitle = {Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 2011 7th International Conference-Workshop},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {119 -124},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2011.5942218}
}
Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Voltage drops mitigations using flywheel energy storage system in production lines 2011 Control Automation (MED), 19th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 868 -873  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A novel flywheel energy storage system is proposed in this study. The energy storage system consists of a flywheel coupled to permanent magnets synchronous machine. The stored energy is used for drop correction for the critical load. In motoring mode (no drop on the grid), the grid connected converter lets the system deliver power and boosts the DC link voltage until the flywheel reaches the maximum speed. In generating mode, the grid connected converter supplies sinusoidal voltage to the grid. The permanent magnets synchronous machine is selected for the design of a three phase machine for the flywheel energy storage system and Hysteresis current control and Space Vector Modulation are used for generating PWM both converters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-Diab:Voltagedropsmitigations_2011a,
  author = {Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Voltage drops mitigations using flywheel energy storage system in production lines},
  booktitle = {Control Automation (MED), 19th Mediterranean Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {868 -873},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983204}
}
Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Voltage Drops Compensations Using Flywheel Energy Storage System 2011 IEEE 7th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-DiabSourkounis:VoltageDropsCompensationsUsingFlywheelEnergyStorageSystem_2011,
  author = {Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Voltage Drops Compensations Using Flywheel Energy Storage System},
  booktitle = {IEEE 7th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2011}
}
Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Multi-tracking single-fed PV inverter 2010 15th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), pp. 1117 -1122  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Grid-connected photovoltaic system is the most important among the photovoltaic applications. High efficiency power converter and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) are the key technologies of grid-connected inverters for photovoltaic system. Shadows created by clouds, trees ...etc. partially cover PV modules causes illumination decrease, in this condition the Current-voltage and power-voltage characteristics of large photovoltaic (PV) arrays become more complex and difficult to identify because different maximum power points exist, and the location of the global maximum power point is changing corresponding to the changing on the shading conditions. A multi-MPPT grid-connected photovoltaic system configuration based on the Perturb amp; Observe MPPT algorithm and Phase Shift Control is proposed in this paper. Two different configurations for a Grid-connected photovoltaic system, conventional and the proposed configurations, are investigated to verify the performance of the proposed configuration.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-Diab:Multi-trackingsingle-fedPV_2010,
  author = {Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Multi-tracking single-fed PV inverter},
  booktitle = {15th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1117 -1122},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MELCON.2010.5476360}
}
Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Variable step size P amp;O MPPT algorithm for PV systems 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM), pp. 1097 -1102  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are employed in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power which depends on solar irradiance and temperature. Among all the MPPT strategies, The P amp;O Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm is mostly used, due to its ease of implementation. On the other hand, its main drawbacks are the waste of energy in steady state conditions, when the working point moves across the MPP and the poor dynamic performances exhibited when a step change in solar irradiance or in temperature occurs. In this paper, a modified variable step size P amp;O MPPT algorithm is proposed, the step size is automatically tuned according to the operating point. Compared with the conventional fixed step size method, the proposed approach can effectively improve the MPPT speed and efficiency simultaneously. A theoretical analysis and the design principle of the proposed algorithm are provided and its feasibility is also verified by simulation results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Al-Diab:Variablestepsize_2010,
  author = {Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Variable step size P amp;O MPPT algorithm for PV systems},
  booktitle = {12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1097 -1102},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OPTIM.2010.5510441}
}
Bakon, T., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. New Detection Method for Earth Faults in Three-Phases Four-Wire Utility Grids 2006 10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM  inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper presents a new method for the detection of error states in four-wire
three-phase grids. The method bases on the measurement of phase currents. The type of fault
and its location in the transmission line is detected. The final goal of the scientific work is to
eliminate the fault current at the location of the fault, primarily for earth faults. This goal will
be reached by suitable control of a self-commutated, grid-connected inverter feeding the grid
in parallel to the normal supply. This inverter replaces or supports known mechanisms, e. g.
Petersen coils. The continuous delivery of electrical energy to loads connected to the end of
the transmission line will be possible.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BakonStaudtSteimel:NewDetectionMethodforEarthFaultsinThree-PhasesFour-WireUtilityGrids_2006,
  author = {Bakon, T. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {New Detection Method for Earth Faults in Three-Phases Four-Wire Utility Grids},
  booktitle = {10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM},
  year = {2006}
}
Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Advanced Simulation Concept for Power Electronic Systems applied to the 3-Level NPC Inverter 2009 35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 184-189  inproceedings  
Abstract: State-of-the-art high-power applications offer a high level of complexity,
containing, e.g., linear, hybrid and nonlinear elements. The development of advanced control
algorithms requires enhanced simulation effort featuring hybrid systems containing
continuous and discrete elements.
Besides a brief description of a simulation concept fulfilling these requirements and
additionally minimising development time losses by program portation using an interface for
control algorithms implemented in C, the use of Petri Nets for the modelling of the switching
elements is introduced. A Petri-Net representation of a 3-level NPC inverter is derived. The
capability and accuracy of the chosen simulation approach is outlined by simulation results of
a 3-level-NPC-inverter feeding an IM, represented by a R-L impedance and EMF.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltHeisingOettmeierStaudtSteimel:AdvancedSimulationConceptforPowerElectronicSystemsappliedtothe3-LevelNPCInverter_2009,
  author = {Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Advanced Simulation Concept for Power Electronic Systems applied to the 3-Level NPC Inverter},
  booktitle = {35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {184-189}
}
Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Time-Domain Simulation of MMC with the Simulation Approach SCOPE for Multiterminal Power-Electronic Systems 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: The modular multi-level converter (MMC) topology is increasingly used in high-voltage high-power applications
like e.g. in HVDC transmission. Grid-code requirements, voltage quality and fault reaction
require a detailed simulation down to each switching of the semiconductors. During startup, automatically
reacting diodes play the key role. A simulation of the MMC topology meeting these requirements is
presented here. It bases on the simulation approach SCOPE. Using the SCOPE approach, a time resolution
down to the individual switchings, natively including the automatic reaction of diodes, is realized.
After a brief introduction of the simulation approach SCOPE, this paper presents topology, simulation
and results of an MMC. The selected example is the demanding simulation of the charging process of
the capacitors of a MMC in back-to-back topology
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltHeisingStaudtSteimel:Time-DomainSimulationofMMCwiththeSimulationApproachSCOPEforMultiterminalPower-ElectronicSystems_2011,
  author = {Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Time-Domain Simulation of MMC with the Simulation Approach SCOPE for Multiterminal Power-Electronic Systems},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Simulation of Decentralised Multi-Terminal Power-Electronic Systems Applied to Solar Farms 2010 MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion  inproceedings  
Abstract: From many practical problems the need for simulating complex grids including
the connected devices with independent control and switching frequency arises. This
paper presents a simulation tool which satifies these requirements. A relevant case for
such a simulation tool is a solar farm in which many grid-interconnected – independently
controlled and independently switching – inverters have to be simulated down to each
switching event. Otherwise the various interactions of converters, filters and cables with
their resonaces cannot be judged sensibly.
The advanced simulation concept – which combines the simulation of individually
controlled power electronics with the inter-action of energy-storing elements like
capacitors and inductors linked by cables – is introduced. The capability of the presented
approach is proven by simulation results of a multiterminal system containing four threephase
two-level inverters connected to one DC grid.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltHeisingStaudtSteimel:SimulationofDecentralisedMulti-TerminalPower-ElectronicSystemsAppliedtoSolarFarms_2010,
  author = {Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Simulation of Decentralised Multi-Terminal Power-Electronic Systems Applied to Solar Farms},
  booktitle = {MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion},
  year = {2010}
}
Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. PLL and DFT feed-forward control for railway single-phase line-converter synchronisation 2009 6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), pp. 217 - 223  inproceedings  
Abstract: Power-electronic converters connected to a railway supply grid have to meet specific
interference limitations. In the majority of cases all frequency components except the odd
multiples of the fundamental oscillation of the grid voltage are strictly limited. Hence all
advanced control schemes are operating grid-synchronised. Because these control schemes
additionally need accurate information of the actual grid voltage often a combination of
Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is used. In railway-grid
applications there are special requirements to the transient response time of the
synchronisation.
In this paper the transient response time is notably reduced by using a sophisticated feedforward
control. Based on a brief introduction of the DFT this feed-forward control is derived
in detail. Simulation results verify the excellent operation of the PLL and DFT combination
even if the line voltage is disturbed by stationary and dynamic grid intrusions or pantograph
arcing.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltHeisingStaudtSteimel:PLLandDFTfeed-forwardcontrolforrailwaysingle-phaseline-convertersynchronisation_2009,
  author = {Bartelt, R. and Heising, C. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {PLL and DFT feed-forward control for railway single-phase line-converter synchronisation},
  booktitle = {6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {217 - 223}
}
Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Wrede, H., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Simulation approach SCOPE for Control Design in Multiterminal Applications with Low-Short Circuit Power Adequate for Renewable-Energy Systems 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: The decreasing costs of semiconductors and the increased use of renewable energy raises the impact
of power-electronic devices in the public grid. In consequence, a high-quality analysis of grid stability
will get more in more important. Especially wind and solar-farms with many converters – each with an
individual control and individual switching – are sensitive to these stability aspects. Thus, a simulation
tool is necessary which is able to reproduce the occurring interactions between the power-electronic
converters with adequate accuracy. Beside single-switching accuracy, the simulation tool has to be able
to handle multiterminal structures containing independent control algorithms.
The simulation tool SCOPE features the introduced requirements. The capability is demonstrated by
simulation results of a multiterminal system containing three three-phase two-level inverters connected
to the same feeding source via inductive star points.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltHeisingWredeStaudtSteimel:SimulationapproachSCOPEforControlDesigninMultiterminalApplicationswithLow-ShortCircuitPowerAdequateforRenewable-EnergySystems_2011,
  author = {Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Holger Wrede and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Simulation approach SCOPE for Control Design in Multiterminal Applications with Low-Short Circuit Power Adequate for Renewable-Energy Systems},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Heising, C. and Staudt, V. Flux-Based Control of 3-phase Active Front End 2010 ISNCC - 10th Conference-Seminar International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation  inproceedings  
Abstract: Active Front End converters (AFE) connect a DC link to a grid, usually with
three phases. They allow energy flow in both directions, reduce grid-current harmonics,
needed shortcircuit power and non-active power in comparison to diode or thyristor-based
devices. One more advantage, with is in the center of this paper, is the dynamic reaction
to load variations combined with the need for robust control under varying grid
parameters.
The worst-case variations of grid parameters, in this context, are voltage sags and voltage
unsymmetry (e.g. phase faults).
This paper presents a control concept employing an inner, virtual-grid-flux based control
for fast current control and an outer DC-link voltage control with a conventional PI
controller. The layout of the controllers is detailed. Simulations characterise the dynamic
performance concerning load variation and grid parameter variation. A comparison of
measured and simulated result of a step-wise load change proves the validity of the
simulation and the control concept.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltOettmeierHeisingStaudt:Flux-BasedControlof3-phaseActiveFrontEnd_2010,
  author = {Roman Bartelt and Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt},
  title = {Flux-Based Control of 3-phase Active Front End},
  booktitle = {ISNCC - 10th Conference-Seminar International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation},
  year = {2010}
}
Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Heising, C. and Staudt, V. Flux-Based Control of 3-phase Active Front End 2010 International School of Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation, pp. 5-9  inproceedings  
Abstract: Active Front End converters (AFE) connect a DC link to a grid, usually with
three phases. They allow energy flow in both directions, reduce grid-current harmonics,
needed shortcircuit power and non-active power in comparison to diode or thyristor-based
devices. One more advantage, with is in the center of this paper, is the dynamic reaction
to load variations combined with the need for robust control under varying grid
parameters.
The worst-case variations of grid parameters, in this context, are voltage sags and voltage
unsymmetry (e.g. phase faults).
This paper presents a control concept employing an inner, virtual-grid-flux based control
for fast current control and an outer DC-link voltage control with a conventional PI
controller. The layout of the controllers is detailed. Simulations characterise the dynamic
performance concerning load variation and grid parameter variation. A comparison of
measured and simulated result of a step-wise load change proves the validity of the
simulation and the control concept.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltOettmeierHeisingStaudt:Flux-BasedControlof3-phaseActiveFrontEnd_2010a,
  author = {Bartelt, Roman and Oettmeier, Martin and Heising, Carsten and Staudt, Volker},
  title = {Flux-Based Control of 3-phase Active Front End},
  booktitle = {International School of Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {5-9}
}
Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Comparison of 50-Hz Railway Line-Side Converter Input-Admittance for Different Substation Distances and Control Concepts 2010 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Stability problems are a major issue in railway grids for both, 16.7 Hz and 50
Hz applications. Thus, the impact of the traction vehicle line-side converter control has to
be evaluated. One method to obatin informations about the system is to measure the
input-impedance of the traction vehicle.
In this paper, the input impedance of traction vehicles with two different line-side
converter controls is computed at different distances to the substation. On the one hand
the conventional PI control is determined, on the other hand the admittance representation
of an advanced multivariable control is given. Both impedances are calculated at two
different distances, showing the influence of different control structures on the resulting
impedance.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltOettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Comparisonof50-HzRailwayLine-SideConverterInput-AdmittanceforDifferentSubstationDistancesandControlConcepts_2010,
  author = {Roman Bartelt and Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Comparison of 50-Hz Railway Line-Side Converter Input-Admittance for Different Substation Distances and Control Concepts},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)},
  year = {2010}
}
Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Improvement of Low-Frequency System Stability in 16.7-Hz Railway-Power Grids by Multivariable Line-Converter Control in a Multiple Traction-Vehicle Scenario 2010 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Stability issues are a major concern in railway grids. Although these problems are
most experienced in 16.7- Hz applications, low-frequency oscillations also occur in 50-Hz
railway grids. In this paper, an advanced multivariable control concept is presented. Beside
achieving very good dynamic behavior, the approach improves the introduced stability
problem. The proper operation of the control is verified using measurement results. A time
domain simulation verifies the stability problem caused by the state-of-the-art control and
shows the improved performance of the multivariable control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltOettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:ImprovementofLow-FrequencySystemStabilityin16.7-HzRailway-PowerGridsbyMultivariableLine-Converter_2010,
  author = {Roman Bartelt and Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Improvement of Low-Frequency System Stability in 16.7-Hz Railway-Power Grids by Multivariable Line-Converter Control in a Multiple Traction-Vehicle Scenario},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)},
  year = {2010}
}
Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Advanced Simulation Concept for Interaction of Railway Grid Representation and Model Power Train of AC Locomotive 2009 POWERENG 2009 - 2nd International Conference on Power Engineering, pp. 267 - 272  inproceedings  
Abstract: Grid interaction and stability is an important issue for 16.7-Hz single-phase railway
applications. A project is set up which aims to develop an overall control scheme for traction
vehicles which stabilizes the grid and avoids generating disturbances and excitation. To
analyse the full dynamic behaviour on the firm footing of experimental results, a test bench is
built. On the one hand the 16.7-Hz single-phase railway grid is modelled – featuring
impedance, grid voltage harmonics and pantograph arcing. On the other hand the full power
chain of a traction vehicle is modelled.
To simulate such complex structures consisting of networks and components described by
high-order differential equations and several power-electronic devices with high accuracy and
efficiency as well, an advanced simulation concept is needed. One which fulfils the
requirements and convincing simulation results of the interaction between modelled grid and
loco are presented. The verification is done by measurements.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BarteltOettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:AdvancedSimulationConceptforInteractionofRailwayGridRepresentationandModelPowerTrainofACLocomotive_2009,
  author = {R. Bartelt and M. Oettmeier and C. Heising and V. Staudt and A. Steimel},
  title = {Advanced Simulation Concept for Interaction of Railway Grid Representation and Model Power Train of AC Locomotive},
  booktitle = {POWERENG 2009 - 2nd International Conference on Power Engineering},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {267 - 272}
}
Bauer, H., Dörsch, S., Freudenberg, H., Geissler, H.J., Rode, C., Staudt, V. and Viet, J.J. Development of a Laboratory Test Method Evaluating the Effect of Composite Brake Blocks on the Transition Resistance of Track Circuits 2007 15th International Wheelset Congress  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BauerDoerschFreudenbergGeisslerRodeStaudtViet:DevelopmentofaLaboratoryTestMethodEvaluatingtheEffectofCompositeBrakeBlocksonthe_2007,
  author = {Bauer, H. and Dörsch, S. and Freudenberg, H. and Geissler, H. J. and Rode, C. and Staudt, V. and Viet, J. J.},
  title = {Development of a Laboratory Test Method Evaluating the Effect of Composite Brake Blocks on the Transition Resistance of Track Circuits},
  booktitle = {15th International Wheelset Congress},
  year = {2007}
}
Bauer, P. and Staudt, V. Remote controlled practical education for Power Electronics 2007 EPE 2007 - 12th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BauerStaudt:RemotecontrolledpracticaleducationforPowerElectronics_2007,
  author = {Bauer, P. and Staudt, Volker},
  title = {Remote controlled practical education for Power Electronics},
  booktitle = {EPE 2007 - 12th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications},
  year = {2007}
}
Beck, H.-P., Kanakis, A. and Sourkounis, C. Power Control of Wind Power Converters with Asynchronous Generators 1997 4th International Conference "Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation" (EPQU)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckKanakisSourkounis:PowerControlofWindPowerConverterswithAsynchronousGenerators_1997,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Kanakis, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Power Control of Wind Power Converters with Asynchronous Generators},
  booktitle = {4th International Conference "Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation" (EPQU)},
  year = {1997}
}
Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. Comparison of 5 MW-Off-Shore Wind Energy Converters 2002 World Wind Energy Conference  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounis:Comparisonof5MW-Off-ShoreWindEnergyConverters_2002,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Comparison of 5 MW-Off-Shore Wind Energy Converters},
  booktitle = {World Wind Energy Conference},
  year = {2002}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C. and Stichweh, H. Potential der PI-Zustandsregelung bezüglich einer Lastkollektivminimierung 2001 VDI-Tagung: Schwingungen in Anlagen und Maschinen, pp. 127-141  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisStichweh:PotentialderPI-ZustandsregelungbezueglicheinerLastkollektivminimierung_2001,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Stichweh, H.},
  title = {Potential der PI-Zustandsregelung bezüglich einer Lastkollektivminimierung},
  booktitle = {VDI-Tagung: Schwingungen in Anlagen und Maschinen},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {127-141}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C., Stichweh, H., Marquardt, C. and Zenner, H. Lebensdauererhöhung durch aktive Schwingungsdämpfung eines selbsteinstellenden zustandsgeregelten Asynchronantriebs 2003 DVM-Tagung "Mechatronik und Betriebsfestigkeit"  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisStichwehMarquardtZenner:LebensdauererhoehungdurchaktiveSchwingungsdaempfungeinesselbsteinstellendenzustandsgeregeltenAsynchronantriebs_2003,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Stichweh, H. and Marquardt, C. and Zenner, H.},
  title = {Lebensdauererhöhung durch aktive Schwingungsdämpfung eines selbsteinstellenden zustandsgeregelten Asynchronantriebs},
  booktitle = {DVM-Tagung "Mechatronik und Betriebsfestigkeit"},
  year = {2003}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C. and Tulbure, A. Schwingungsdämpfung in Antriebssystemen mit Doppelkäfig-Asynchronmaschine 2001 VDI-Tagung: Schwingungen in Anlagen und Maschinen, pp. 113-126  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisTulbure:SchwingungsdaempfunginAntriebssystemenmitDoppelkaefig-Asynchronmaschine_2001,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Tulbure, A.},
  title = {Schwingungsdämpfung in Antriebssystemen mit Doppelkäfig-Asynchronmaschine},
  booktitle = {VDI-Tagung: Schwingungen in Anlagen und Maschinen},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {113-126}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Energiekonditionierung in dezentralen Energieversorgungssystemen mit stochastischem Primärenergieangebot 2001 X. Windenergietage  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisWenske:EnergiekonditionierungindezentralenEnergieversorgungssystemenmitstochastischemPrimaerenergieangebot_2001,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Energiekonditionierung in dezentralen Energieversorgungssystemen mit stochastischem Primärenergieangebot},
  booktitle = {X. Windenergietage},
  year = {2001}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Electronic Synchronous-Machine for the Power Conditioning in Distribution-Networks with High Wind-Energy-Share 1999 EPQU  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisWenske:ElectronicSynchronous-MachineforthePowerConditioninginDistribution-NetworkswithHighWind-Energy-Share_1999,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Electronic Synchronous-Machine for the Power Conditioning in Distribution-Networks with High Wind-Energy-Share},
  booktitle = {EPQU},
  year = {1999}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Statischer Synchronkonverter mit aktiver Dämpfungseinrichtung zur Energiekonditionierung 1999 Archiv der Elektrotechnik(6)  article  
BibTeX:
@article{BeckSourkounisWenske:StatischerSynchronkonvertermitaktiverDaempfungseinrichtungzurEnergiekonditionierung_1999,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Statischer Synchronkonverter mit aktiver Dämpfungseinrichtung zur Energiekonditionierung},
  journal = {Archiv der Elektrotechnik},
  year = {1999},
  number = {6}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Torsionsschwingungen in Antriebssträngen mit hydrodynamischer Kupplung 1995 Antriebstechnik(5)  article  
BibTeX:
@article{BeckSourkounisWenske:TorsionsschwingungeninAntriebsstraengenmithydrodynamischerKupplung_1995,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Torsionsschwingungen in Antriebssträngen mit hydrodynamischer Kupplung},
  journal = {Antriebstechnik},
  year = {1995},
  number = {5}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Das dynamische Verhalten einer Shredder-Anlage mit Asynchronmotorantrieb und hydrodynamischer Kupplung 1994 ACHEMA, Kolloqium zu SFB 180  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisWenske:DasdynamischeVerhalteneinerShredder-AnlagemitAsynchronmotorantriebundhydrodynamischerKupplung_1994,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Das dynamische Verhalten einer Shredder-Anlage mit Asynchronmotorantrieb und hydrodynamischer Kupplung},
  booktitle = {ACHEMA, Kolloqium zu SFB 180},
  year = {1994}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C., Zenner, H. and Peter, F. Shredder-Belastungsmessungen und lastminimierte, energiesparende Shredderantriebe 1997 ACHEMA  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisZennerPeter:Shredder-BelastungsmessungenundlastminimierteenergiesparendeShredderantriebe_1997,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Zenner, H. and Peter, F.},
  title = {Shredder-Belastungsmessungen und lastminimierte, energiesparende Shredderantriebe},
  booktitle = {ACHEMA},
  year = {1997}
}
Beck, H.-P., Sourkounis, C., Zenner, H. and Peter, F. Zusammenhang von Zerkleinerungsprozeß und Beanspruchungen im Antriebssstrang am Beispiel eines Shredders 1997 XLVIII. Berg- und Hüttenmännischer Tag
Freiberger Forschungshefte A 840 
inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckSourkounisZennerPeter:ZusammenhangvonZerkleinerungsprozessundBeanspruchungenimAntriebssstrangamBeispieleinesShredders_1997,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. and Zenner, H. and Peter, F.},
  title = {Zusammenhang von Zerkleinerungsprozeß und Beanspruchungen im Antriebssstrang am Beispiel eines Shredders},
  booktitle = {XLVIII. Berg- und Hüttenmännischer Tag
Freiberger Forschungshefte A 840}, year = {1997} }
Beck, H.-P., Zenner, H., Sourkounis, C. and Harste, D. Life time Extention of Grinding Mill Power Train Components by Applied Fuzzy Control 1996 Third International Conference on Engineering Structured Integrity  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BeckZennerSourkounisHarste:LifetimeExtentionofGrindingMillPowerTrainComponentsbyAppliedFuzzyControl_1996,
  author = {Beck, H.-P. and Zenner, H. and Sourkounis, C. and Harste, D.},
  title = {Life time Extention of Grinding Mill Power Train Components by Applied Fuzzy Control},
  booktitle = {Third International Conference on Engineering Structured Integrity},
  year = {1996}
}
Bock, B., Krafft, E.U. and Steimel, A. Measurement of Multiple Chip Currents in a Press-Pack IGBT Using Rogowski-Coils 2003 10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: The currents of single chips paralleled inside a 4.5kV / 2kA press-pack IGBT are measured with Rogowski coils to investigate the static and dynamic distribution of the total current inside the device. Because of the low magnitude of the signals, an especially careful calibration and measurement strategy is needed. The measurements reveal static and dynamic inhomogeneities as well as significant current redistributions during turn-off
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BockKrafftSteimel:MeasurementofMultipleChipCurrentsinaPress-PackIGBTUsingRogowski-Coils_2003,
  author = {Bock, B. and Krafft, E. U. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Measurement of Multiple Chip Currents in a Press-Pack IGBT Using Rogowski-Coils},
  booktitle = {10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2003}
}
Bock, B. and Steimel, A. Dynamic Current Redistributions between paralleled IGBTs at Turn-on 2004 33. Kolloquium Halbleiter-Leistungsbauelemente und ihre systemtechnische Anwendung *  conference  
Abstract: Paralleled IGBT chips show redistributions of the total anode current during switching transitions despite symmetric circuit conditions due to fabrication tolerances. A simple device simulation with SPICE reveals that current redistributions between paralleled IGBTs during turn-on are caused by the fast decay of the differential base resistance, provided the transconductances of the inherent MOSFETs are different.
BibTeX:
@conference{BockSteimel:DynamicCurrentRedistributionsbetweenparalleledIGBTsatTurn-on_2004,
  author = {Bock, B. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Dynamic Current Redistributions between paralleled IGBTs at Turn-on},
  booktitle = {33. Kolloquium Halbleiter-Leistungsbauelemente und ihre systemtechnische Anwendung *},
  year = {2004}
}
Bock, B. and Steimel, A. Impact of the Anode Current of an IGBT on the Gate Voltage 2004 IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC '04), pp. 2930-2936  inproceedings  
Abstract: Measurements prove an impact of the IGBT anode current on the gate voltage. This is of interest for gate-drive considerations aiming at the control of current and voltage waveforms as well as for the explanation of current redistributions between paralleled IGBTs during switching transients.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{BockSteimel:ImpactoftheAnodeCurrentofanIGBTontheGateVoltage_2004,
  author = {Bock, B. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Impact of the Anode Current of an IGBT on the Gate Voltage},
  booktitle = {IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC '04)},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {2930-2936}
}
Bouabana, A., Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C. Influence of a high precision current sensor for improving the efficiency of PV power systems 2011 Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop, pp. 196 -201  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) techniques are employed in photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the PV array output power which depends on solar irradiance and temperature. Most of these techniques depend on the measurement of the current sensor which needs to be simulated on the design phase. Simulation tools like Matlab/SIMULINK, PSpice, Multisim. etc, don't simulate the practical behaviour of measurement devices and only deal with ideal characteristics which make it difficult to understand the exact response of such system on the operation mode. Current sensor model is implemented to enhance the design and the implementation of the proposed modified P amp;O algorithm. The algorithm is designed in order to overcome the drawbacks in traditional P amp;O MPPT algorithm. Varying the step size value and the sampling time reduces the oscillations around the MPP and leads to a faster response. When a step change in the solar irradiance occurs, the step size and sampling time are automatically tuned according to the operating point. If the operating point is far from the MPP, it increases the step size and decreases the sampling time which enables a fast tracking ability with smaller oscillation steps around the MPP.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bouabana:Influenceofhigh_2011,
  author = {Bouabana, A. and Al-Diab, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Influence of a high precision current sensor for improving the efficiency of PV power systems},
  booktitle = {Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {196 -201},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2011.5942231}
}
Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. A low-cost three phase current sensor module with a novel modulated interface 2012 Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2012 16th IEEE Mediterranean, pp. 459 -463  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Current sensors have an important part in the technical world. A special part is by photovoltaic. The efficiency of the system can only increase by means of the MPP-Tracking with high precise current sensor. Furthermore, the inverter with the three phases should measure balance or unbalance effects. In this case, this paper will present a novel system (AC-DI module). This module has four high precise single current sensors, which are based on the measuring module (IHM-A-1500). Compared to conventional current sensors, the proposed topology is advantageous because of its high resolution throughout its full measurement range, thus reducing offsets to a minimum. This aim is reached through active offset compensation using an analog/digital chopper/de-chopper. A further advantage is the excellent suppression of 1/f noise and a low noise density (35 nV/ #x221A;Hz) down to the DC-threshold. Common current sensors may be replaced with this technology whose one output is likewise analog. The power supply requirements are also far lower than for standard topologies as only a single supply is needed. In addition to that is the novel modulation method, which codes directly the measured value in a #x201C;digital current value #x201D;.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bouabana2012,
  author = {Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {A low-cost three phase current sensor module with a novel modulated interface},
  booktitle = {Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2012 16th IEEE Mediterranean},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {459 -463},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MELCON.2012.6196472}
}
Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. A modulated interface for a low-cost current sensor in comparison with its simulated model 2012 Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2012 16th IEEE Mediterranean, pp. 455 -458  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Simulation tools like Matlab/SIMULINK, PSpice, Multisim. etc, don't simulate the practical behavior of measurement devices and only deal with ideal characteristics. The problem of ideal current sensor is the accuracy of the calculated value. The simulated value has a high accuracy, which depends on of the processor. For example, a 32bit processor achieves an accuracy of 1/32bit =2,328.10-10. This will not be realizable in metrology, which will produce a mismatch between simulation results and experimental results. Therefore, a more realistic simulation model of a current sensor is required to express the significant meaning of the simulation results. Different disturbances such as, the offset (depends on temperature), the non linearity and the noise influence on the accuracy of a practical current sensor. The implemented simulation model includes these typical influences that gives the simulated value a more realistic view and provides more accurate information about the simulation results. The novel modulation method and therefore the current sensor, results for current control units a high performance. An AD-Converter is not more necessary for signal conversion. The measurement current is directly coded in a #x201C;digital current value #x201D;, which can be decoded and used for the control unit.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bouabana2012a,
  author = {Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {A modulated interface for a low-cost current sensor in comparison with its simulated model},
  booktitle = {Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), 2012 16th IEEE Mediterranean},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {455 -458},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MELCON.2012.6196471}
}
Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. A new digital modulated interface for a precise and robust current sensor 2011 Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011), Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on, pp. 1 -9  inproceedings  
Abstract: Compared to conventional current sensors, the proposed topology is advantageous because of its high resolution throughout its full measurement range, thus reducing offsets to a minimum. This aim is reached through active offset compensation using an analog/digital chopper/de-chopper. A further advantage is the excellent suppression of 1/f noise and a low noise density (35 nV/ #x221A;Hz) down to the DC-threshold. Common current sensors may be replaced with this technology whose one output is likewise analog. The power supply requirements are also far lower than for standard topologies as only a single supply is needed. The F-PWM modulation method and therefore the current sensor, results for current control units a high performance. The measurement current is directly coded in a #x201C;digital current value #x201D;, which can be decoded and used for the control unit. An AD-Converter is not more necessary for signal conversion, compared to the typical analog output current sensor based on the Hall-Effect. The coded signals can be transmitted potential - free with an optocoupler.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bouabana:newdigitalmodulated_2011,
  author = {Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {A new digital modulated interface for a precise and robust current sensor},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications (EPE 2011), Proceedings of the 2011-14th European Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1 -9}
}
Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. Design and analysis of a coreless flyback converter with a planar printed-circuit-board transformer 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM), pp. 557 -563  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In this paper the development of a 1W DC/DC converter is presented. It is based on a flyback converter for simple applications. The transformer is designed in a form as a spiral coil on a PCB. The special feature of the converter is that the flyback converter is laid out without a core. The area (diameter) of a spiral coil should be bigger as a coil with a core because the air is not a good energy store. The advantage of a coreless transformer is the PCB-Design. The paper describes the theory of the flyback converter and shows a way of the implementation of the coreless planar transformer. An analysis shows some results by different geometry and frequency of the planar transformer.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bouabana:Designandanalysis_2010,
  author = {Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Design and analysis of a coreless flyback converter with a planar printed-circuit-board transformer},
  booktitle = {12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {557 -563},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OPTIM.2010.5510406}
}
Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. A low-cost current sensor with a novel modulated interface (F-PWM) 2010 Electronics, Circuits, and Systems (ICECS), 17th IEEE International Conference on, pp. 802 -806  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Compared to conventional current sensors, the proposed topology is advantageous because of its high resolution throughout its full measurement range, thus reducing offsets to a minimum. This aim is reached through active offset compensation using an analog/digital chopper/de-chopper. A further advantage is the excellent suppression of 1/f noise and a low noise density (35 nV/ #x221A;Hz) down to the DC-threshold. Common current sensors may be replaced with this technology whose one output is likewise analog. The power supply requirements are also far lower than for standard topologies as only a single supply is needed. The novel modulation method and therefore the current sensor, results for current control units a high performance. An AD-Converter is not more necessary for signal conversion. The measurement current is directly coded in a #x201C;digital current value #x201D;, which can be decoded and used for the control unit.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bouabana:low-costcurrentsensor_2010,
  author = {Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {A low-cost current sensor with a novel modulated interface (F-PWM)},
  booktitle = {Electronics, Circuits, and Systems (ICECS), 17th IEEE International Conference on},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {802 -806},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICECS.2010.5724634}
}
Bouabana, A., Sourkounis, C. and Mallach, M. Design and analysis of different structure of a coreless planar transformer for a flyback converter 2012 Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on, pp. 827 -831  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In this paper the development of a 0.5 W DC/DC converter is presented. The special feature of the converter is that the flyback converter is laid out without a core on a PCB. The paper shows a way of the implementation of the coreless planar transformer. An analysis shows some results by different geometry and frequency of the planar transformer. This DC/DC converter is adjusted for special current sensors, which are developed in the research group. it will be shown different variants of a layout structure. The issue of the development is the realise a DC/Dc converter with a high isolation voltage.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Bouabana2012b,
  author = {Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. and Mallach, M.},
  title = {Design and analysis of different structure of a coreless planar transformer for a flyback converter},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {827 -831},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SPEEDAM.2012.6264489}
}
Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C. Using the drive train for active damping of oscillations in rotor blades in gearless wind-energy-converters with PMSM 2012 Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on, pp. 1091 -1094  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: With the increasing nominal power of wind energy converters, an optimized management, a higher level of efficiency and reduced costs are needed. In search of suitable generator systems for wind turbines in the MW class, the permanent-magnet synchronous machine as a generator moves to the focus of current discussions. The Rotor and its blades are able to oscillate due to various dynamic loads a wind energy converter is exposed. With the increasing nominal power of wind energy converters, an optimized management, a higher level of efficiency and reduced costs are needed. In search of suitable generator systems for wind turbines in the MW class, the permanent-magnet synchronous machine as a generator moves to the focus of current discussions. The Rotor and its blades are able to oscillate due to various dynamic loads a wind energy converter is exposed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Broy2012,
  author = {Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Using the drive train for active damping of oscillations in rotor blades in gearless wind-energy-converters with PMSM},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {1091 -1094},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SPEEDAM.2012.6264584}
}
Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C. Using the drive train of an gearless wind-energy-converter for active damping of oscillations in rotor blades 2012 Control Automation (MED), 2012 20th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 1195 -1199  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: By the increasing nominal power of wind energy converters, an optimized management, a higher level of efficiency and reduced costs are needed. In search of suitable generator systems and concepts for wind turbines in the MW class, among others, the permanent-magnet synchronous machine as a generator moves to the focus of current discussions. The Rotor and its blades are able to oscillate due to various dynamic loads a wind energy converter is exposed. In wind energy converters in the Multi MW-class the natural frequencies of the blades have the same range as the naturals of the drive train. Thus blades are no longer isolated from the generator and inverter system to consider in terms of their dynamics, but must be embedded in the overall structure of the energy conversion train. This paper deals with the different types of rotor blade oscillations and its influence to the drive train as well as the possibility to influence the oscillations develop and use a new control strategy for the drive train.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Broy2012a,
  author = {Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Using the drive train of an gearless wind-energy-converter for active damping of oscillations in rotor blades},
  booktitle = {Control Automation (MED), 2012 20th Mediterranean Conference on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {1195 -1199},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2012.6265801}
}
Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C. Influence of charging electric vehicles and on the quality of the distribution grids 2011 Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on, pp. 1 -4  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Electrical or hybrid powered vehicles become a serious alternative to conventional-driven vehicles also for private users. In electric vehicles, the batterie capacities reached an acceptable level and the requirements for a short charging time will rise continually. Actual electric vehicles have charging capacities up to 50 kW, taken from the urban grid. This paper deals with the impact of (high-power) charging electric vehicles on the urban distribution grid.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Broy:Influenceofcharging_2011,
  author = {Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Influence of charging electric vehicles and on the quality of the distribution grids},
  booktitle = {Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1 -4},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPQU.2011.6128804}
}
Dörnemann, C., Gehlen, C. and Steimel, A. Untersuchung der elektrischen Feldexposition von Personen in Anlagen der Energieversorgung 1999 Elektrizitätswirtschaft
Vol. 98(9), pp. 45-49 
article  
Abstract: The article gives an overview of electric-field-exposure in H.V. substations and on transmission towers. The known effects of electric field exposure on human beings are described. The limits for occupational exposure which are based on these effects are described and their compliance is verified using the method of currents induced in the human body.
BibTeX:
@article{DoernemannGehlenSteimel:UntersuchungderelektrischenFeldexpositionvonPersoneninAnlagenderEnergieversorgung_1999,
  author = {Dörnemann, Ch. and Gehlen, Ch. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Untersuchung der elektrischen Feldexposition von Personen in Anlagen der Energieversorgung},
  journal = {Elektrizitätswirtschaft},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {98},
  number = {9},
  pages = {45-49}
}
Depenbrock M.; Staudt, V. The FBD-Method as Tool for Compensating Total Non-Active Currents 1998 8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power - IEEE ICHQP VIII, pp. 320-324  inproceedings  
Abstract: Over and over again power definitions are discussed in literature and on conferences. This discussion is vital to enhance the understanding of the underlying principles of power definitions and current decomposition. Especially the decomposition of currents into necessary and disturbing components is needed for the control of compensators. The paper discusses the decomposition of instantaneous quantities and of mean value quantities based on the so-called FBD-method. The consequences of the compensation of undesired current components on the demanded energy storage capability of a controlled compensator is analysed. A simple method to reduce this demanded energy storage capability considerably is presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Depenbrock-Staudt-FBD-CompensatingTotalNonActiveCurrentsAthens1998,
  author = {Depenbrock, M.; Staudt, V.},
  title = {The FBD-Method as Tool for Compensating Total Non-Active Currents},
  booktitle = {8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power - IEEE ICHQP VIII},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {320-324}
}
Depenbrock M.; Staudt, V. Stability Problems if Three-Phase Systems with Bidirectional Energy Flow are Compensated Using the FBD-Method 1998 8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power IEEE ICHQP VIII, pp. 325-330  inproceedings  
Abstract: A variety of power compensator circuits and even more methods to control them have already been published. However, most of these publications do not treat the critical case of loads changing abruptly from generating to consuming and vice versa without prior notice. Control algorithms well suited for handling passive loads may lead to instabilities in case of generating loads. The paper discusses this issue on the basis of a three-phase system containing a parallel compensator (shunt controlled filter). The control of the filter is based on the calculation of an equivalent conductance according to the so-called FBD-method. In the basic version the control scheme may lead to instability in case of generating loads. Simple countermeasures preventing instability are analysed theoretically and verified using simulations. Additionally a modified algorithm for the calculation of the equivalent conductance is described, which considerably reduces the required energy storage capability of the compensator in the worst case of stepwise changes of the load power.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Depenbrock-Staudt-StabilityProblemsThreePhase-Bidirectional1998,
  author = {Depenbrock, M.; Staudt, V.},
  title = {Stability Problems if Three-Phase Systems with Bidirectional Energy Flow are Compensated Using the FBD-Method},
  booktitle = {8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power IEEE ICHQP VIII},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {325-330}
}
Depenbrock, M., Foerth, C., Hoffmann, F., Koch, S., Steimel, A. and Weidauer, M. Speed-sensorless stator-flux-oriented control of induction motor drives in traction 2001 Communications - Scientific Letters of the University of Zilina
Vol. 2-3, pp. 68-75 
article  
Abstract: Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) combines the principle of stator-flux-orientation proven successful in Direct Self Control (DSC) with Pulse Width Modulation (PWM). High torque dynamics and robust behaviour against input voltage disturbance are achieved in the whole operation range including field-weakening. After careful correction of inverter voltage errors the difference of the stator current space vectors in the machine and in the control model is employed for speed estimation, allowing to dispense with speed sensors. A special flux management allows infinitely slow change between driving and braking.
BibTeX:
@article{DepenbrockFoerthHoffmannKochSteimelWeidauer:Speed-sensorlessstator-flux-orientedcontrolofinductionmotordrivesintraction_2001,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Foerth, Ch. and Hoffmann, F. and Koch, S. and Steimel, A. and Weidauer, M.},
  title = {Speed-sensorless stator-flux-oriented control of induction motor drives in traction},
  journal = {Communications - Scientific Letters of the University of Zilina},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {2-3},
  pages = {68-75}
}
Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V. Hyper space vectors: A new four-quantity extension of space-vector theory 1998 European Transactions on Electrical Power
Vol. 8(4), pp. 241-248 
article  
Abstract: The space vector theory, which allows to describe three linearly dependent quantities (e.g. three voltages or three currents) using only two linearly independent quantities represented in an orthonormal coordinate system, is widely used in the fields of ac machine theory, power definitions and active filtering. It can be used very effectively in case of circuits with only three terminals. Problems occur in case of four terminals, when four linearly dependent quantities (e.g. four currents, the sum of which is always zero) exist. In this case a zero sequence quantity can be additionally introduced, which has to be treated separately with special equations. Vector operations like cross product or dot product, which are very useful to calculate e.g. power quantities, can no longer be used. This paper presents a transformation applicable to any system represented by four linearly dependent quantities or by three linearly independent quantities in a three-dimensional orthonormal coordinate system. All four members of a set of linearly dependent quantities are treated equally. We suggest to call this representation Hyper Space Vector (HSV). A lot of vector operations can be applied without problems to HSVs, making calculations much easier and more graphic.
BibTeX:
@article{DepenbrockStaudt:Hyperspacevectors:Anewfour-quantityextensionofspace-vectortheory_1998,
  author = {M. Depenbrock and V. Staudt},
  title = {Hyper space vectors: A new four-quantity extension of space-vector theory},
  journal = {European Transactions on Electrical Power},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {8},
  number = {4},
  pages = {241-248}
}
Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V. Hyper Space Vectors: A New Four-Quantity-Extension of Space Vector Theory 1997 Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurement under Nonsinusoidal Conditions, pp. 1-7  inproceedings  
Abstract: The space vector theory, which allows to describe three linearly dependent quantities (e.g. three voltages or three currents) using only two linearly independent quantities represented in an orthonormal coordinate system, is widely used in the fields of ac machine theory, power definitions and active filtering. It can be used very effectively in case of circuits with only three terminals. Problems occur in case of four terminals, when four linearly dependent quantities (e.g. four currents, the sum of which is always zero) exist. In this case a zero sequence quantity can be additionally introduced, which has to be treated separately with special equations. Vector operations like cross product or dot product, which are very useful to calculate e.g. power quantities, can no longer be used. This paper presents a transformation applicable to any system represented by four linearly dependent quantities or by three linearly independent quantities in a three-dimensional orthonormal coordinate system. All four members of a set of linearly dependent quantities are treated equally. We suggest to call this representation Hyper Space Vector (HSV). A lot of vector operations can be applied without problems to HSVs, making calculations much easier and more graphic.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DepenbrockStaudt:HyperSpaceVectors:ANewFour-Quantity-ExtensionofSpaceVectorTheory_1997,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V.},
  title = {Hyper Space Vectors: A New Four-Quantity-Extension of Space Vector Theory},
  booktitle = {Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurement under Nonsinusoidal Conditions},
  year = {1997},
  pages = {1-7}
}
Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V. Determination of the stator flux space vector of saturated AC machines 1990 etz Archiv
Vol. 12(11), pp. 349-352 
article  
Abstract: Up to now, speed measurement is - at least at low stator frequencies - necessary for controlling fast-response high-performance AC drives. In some applications, e.g. traction drives, the speed measurement device is quite unwelcome. In this paper a method to determine absolut value and angle of the stator flux space vector - representing the linkage of stator flux and stator windings of the AC machine - is described. This method is based on saturation effects. The stator flux space vector can be determined from measured quantities of phase voltages and phase currents, no speed measurement is necessary.
BibTeX:
@article{DepenbrockStaudt:DeterminationofthestatorfluxspacevectorofsaturatedACmachines_1990,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V.},
  title = {Determination of the stator flux space vector of saturated AC machines},
  journal = {etz Archiv},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {12},
  number = {11},
  pages = {349-352}
}
Depenbrock, M. and Staudt V., W.M. Raumzeiger in der Energietechnik 1994   misc  
BibTeX:
@misc{DepenbrockStaudt:RaumzeigerinderEnergietechnik_1994,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V. , Weinhold, M.},
  title = {Raumzeiger in der Energietechnik},
  year = {1994}
}
Depenbrock, M., Staudt, V. and Wrede, H. A Theoretical Investigation of Original and Modified Instantaneous Power Theory Applied to Four-Wire Systems 2003 IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Vol. 39(4), pp. 1160-1168 
article  
Abstract: This paper investigates whether the instantaneous reactive currents calculated by the instantaneous power theories contain all currents which do not contribute to the instantaneous power. In 1962 Depenbrock published a power theory generally valid for N-wire systems. In 1983 independently Akagi, Kanazawa and Nabae introduced the original "theory of instantaneous power", valid with few restrictions for N=3. Because of more problems at N=4 Nabae and coauthors introduced a modified version of the instantaneous power theory in 1995. By a discussion of this modified power theory Akagi and coauthors in 1999 showed, that under certain conditions the modified theory leads to compensation results slightly inferior to those resulting from the original theory. This paper gives the compensation rules based on the older generally valid FBD power theory and analyses the differences with regard to the other theories.
BibTeX:
@article{DepenbrockStaudtWrede:ATheoreticalInvestigationofOriginalandModifiedInstantaneousPowerTheoryAppliedtoFour-WireSystems_2003,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {A Theoretical Investigation of Original and Modified Instantaneous Power Theory Applied to Four-Wire Systems},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications},
  year = {2003},
  volume = {39},
  number = {4},
  pages = {1160-1168}
}
Depenbrock, M., Staudt, V. and Wrede, H. A Concise Assessment of Original and Modified Instantaneous Power Theory Applied to Four-Wire Systems 2002 Power Conversion Conference (PCC), pp. 60-67  inproceedings  
Abstract: In 1962 Depenbrock published a power theory generally valid for N-wire systems. In 1983 independently Akagi, Kanazawa and Nabae introduced the original "theory of instantaneous power", valid with few restrictions for N=3. Because of more problems at N=4 Nabae and coauthors introduced a modified version of the instantaneous power theory in 1995. By a discussion of this modified power theory Akagi and coauthors in 1999 showed, that under certain conditions the modified theory leads to compensation results inferior to those resulting from the original theory. Because both theories do not present optimal compensation rules under all conditions of four-wire systems, this paper gives the compensation rules based on the older generally valid FBD power theory and analyses the differences with regard to the other theories.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DepenbrockStaudtWrede:AConciseAssessmentofOriginalandModifiedInstantaneousPowerTheoryAppliedtoFour-WireSystems_2002,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Staudt, V. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {A Concise Assessment of Original and Modified Instantaneous Power Theory Applied to Four-Wire Systems},
  booktitle = {Power Conversion Conference (PCC)},
  year = {2002},
  pages = {60-67}
}
Depenbrock, M. and Steimel, A. Speed-Sensorless Stator-Flux-Oriented Control of Induction Motor Drives in Traction 2004 German-Korean Symposium 2004 on Power Electronics and Electrical Drives  conference  
Abstract: Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) combines the principle of stator-flux-orientation proven successful in Direct Self Control (DSC) with Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM). High torque dynamics and robust behaviour against input voltage disturbance are achieved in the whole operation range including field-weakening. After careful correction of inverter-voltage errors and dc portions in the stator fluxes and currents not necessary for the actual operation point the difference of the stator-current space vectors in the machine and in the controlled model is employed for speed and stator resistance estimation, allowing to dispense with speed sensors. A special flux management allows infinitely slow change between driving and braking.
BibTeX:
@conference{DepenbrockSteimel:Speed-sensorlessstator-flux-orientedcontrolofinductionmotordrivesintraction_2004,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Speed-Sensorless Stator-Flux-Oriented Control of Induction Motor Drives in Traction},
  booktitle = {German-Korean Symposium 2004 on Power Electronics and Electrical Drives},
  year = {2004}
}
Depenbrock, M. and Steimel, A. High Power Traction Drivers and Convertors 1990 Electrical Drives Symposium EDS, pp. I 1-9  inproceedings  
Abstract: In railway traction the three-phase drive system with inverter-fed motors has asserted itself. The first vehicles using thyristor inverters with forced-commutation and slip-frequency-current-control are now superseded by the 'third generation' employing self-turn-off semiconductor devices and highly advanced field-oriented or direct space vector control. The latter -already used in several locomotive drives- is especially suited for high-power drives utilizing the limited switching frequency of Gate-Turn-Off Thyristors (GTOs) best, yet enabling time-optimal torque control. An important progress in design of traction inverters with GTOs was the new unsymmetrical snubber circuit reducing losses to 50%; weight could be reduced to 25% within the last 20 years. For AC overhead supply the self-commutated line-side converter is now standard; re-grouping this as step-up choppers for operation under DC line opens new economic solutions for four-system vehicles. All these new technologies are applied successfully to series-production of rolling stock.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{DepenbrockSteimel:HighPowerTractionDrivesandConvertors_1990,
  author = {Depenbrock, M. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {High Power Traction Drivers and Convertors},
  booktitle = {Electrical Drives Symposium EDS},
  year = {1990},
  pages = {I 1-9}
}
Dost, P., Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C. Measurement sensors in an electric vehicles 2012 Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on, pp. 790 -795  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The decrease of fossil energy and increase of available renewable energy places the Electric Vehicle (EV) into a new point of view as a modern transport system for individual mobility. Whether you live in a town or on the countryside different energy sources within EVs offer a wide range of usability. Anyway the resulting energy being used by the engine is electrical energy [1], [2]. Electric energy needs to be constantly monitored to be controlled within the machine. At this it does not matter whether it is an asynchronous or a permanent excited synchronous machine (PMSM) [3] or even any other. To offer a control with a high accuracy you need suitable sensors. As sensors in cars are one of the most strained components and simultaneously the most important devices to observe any process, they need to be robust and high noise immune. Especially due to outside influences they need to be able to find errors and even correct these. Furthermore they need to be notably fast. A newly designed Sensor [4] [5] with a decentralize measurement unit which offers a robust value transmission is now applied to electric vehicles. This high-quality sensor is necessary for systems like the electric vehicle. Being applied to the electric vehicle the sensors offer a cheap option to measure all currents and voltages in the phases and if available of the battery system. The advantages and benefits as well as the limitations of the measurement system within the electric vehicle are analyzed in this paper. Therefore the drive train is build up with an ideal energy source to which an inverter is applied. The sensors are applied to the three phases of the electrical machine. Finally the control system receives the measured signals and controls the IGBTs of the inverter. To avoid having a special case there are different pulsing methods applied to the drive train. As a pulse-width-modulation [6]-[8] the symmetric sinus modulation as well as the flat-top modulation is applied. Further more a h- steresis controller [9] is applied for the stator orientated space vector system.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dost:Measurementsensorsin_2012,
  author = {Dost, P. and Bouabana, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Measurement sensors in an electric vehicles},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {790 -795},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SPEEDAM.2012.6264618}
}
Dost, P. and Sourkounis, C. Influence of the inverter control-system to the mechanical and electrical behaviour of an electric vehicle modulated as a two-mass-system 2012 Control Automation (MED), 2012 20th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 1099 -1104  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The current developments for the energy supply of individual mobility are emerging electrical energy as an energy source for electric drives [1]. Due to these developments there is a need of considering the conditioning of electrical energy to be used for electrical machines under conditions of an electric vehicle. Comparing a fixed step-size control-system with a hysteresis-control (bang-bang-control), the high frequent influence to the whole power train is evaluated with a view to the electrical and mechanical drive train [2]. Furthermore the travelling comfort is a target of the study [3]. As electrical drives for electric vehicles need to have a wide speed range and likewise be robust the chosen control processes are applied to a permanent magnet excited synchronous machine (PMSM) [4], [5]. This offers the opportunity of a gear-less drive. This by the way offers a big advantage in comparison to combustion engines. To connect the energy source to the PMSM an inverter is used. This builds three-phases for the machine and likewise a rectifier in the opposed direction to the battery. The Inverter is built with a set of IGBTs (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) and integrated anti parallel diodes. The command signal is set by a torque demand, as known in a traditional car, with the help of an acceleration pedal [6], [7]. The mechanical part of the drive train is realized as a double oscillator as this represents the real mechanical drive train.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dost:Influenceofinverter_2012,
  author = {Dost, P. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Influence of the inverter control-system to the mechanical and electrical behaviour of an electric vehicle modulated as a two-mass-system},
  booktitle = {Control Automation (MED), 2012 20th Mediterranean Conference on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {1099 -1104},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2012.6265785}
}
Dost, P. and Sourkounis, C. Effects of the control-process-structure to the drivability in electric vehicles 2011 Control Automation (MED), 2011 19th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 365 -370  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A future-orientated strategy for the use of energy within passenger cars is electrical energy. Due to this development there is a need of considering the conditioning of electrical energy to be used for electrical machines under conditions of an electric vehicle. Comparing a fixed step-size control-system with a space-vector based hysteresis-control (bang-bang-control), the high frequent influence to the whole power train is evaluated. As electrical drives for electric vehicles need to have a wide speed range and likewise be robust the chosen control processes are applied to a permanent magnetic synchronous machine (PMSM). This offers the opportunity of a gearless drive which by the way offers a big advantage in comparison to combustion engines. To connect the energy source to the PMSM there is an inverter which builds up three-phases and likewise a rectifier in the opposed direction with a set of IGBTs and integrated antiparallel diodes. The command signal is set by a torque demand as known in a traditional car with the help of an acceleration pedal.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dost:Effectsofcontrol-process-structure_2011,
  author = {Dost, P. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Effects of the control-process-structure to the drivability in electric vehicles},
  booktitle = {Control Automation (MED), 2011 19th Mediterranean Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {365 -370},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983208}
}
Dost, P. and Sourkounis, C. Mechanical and electrical behaviour of an electric vehicles drive train due to the choice of the control-system 2011 IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 1426 -1431  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A future-orientated strategy for the use of energy within passenger cars is electrical energy. Due to this developpment there is a need of considering the conditioning of electrical energy to be used for electrical machines under conditions of an electric vehicle. Comparing a fixed step-size control-system with a space-vector based hysteresis-control (bang-bang-control), the high frequent influence to the whole power train is evaluated with a view to the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Furthermore the travelling comfort is a target of the study. As electrical drives for electric vehicles need to have a wide speed range and likewise be robust the chosen control processes are applied to a permanent magnetic synchronous machine (PMSM) [1]. This offers the opportunity of a gearless drive which by the way offers a big advantage in comparison to combustion engines. To connect the energy source to the PMSM there is an inverter which builds up three-phases and likewise a rectifier in the opposed direction with a set of IGBTs and integrated antiparallel diodes. The command signal is set by a torque demand as known in a traditional car with the help of an acceleration pedal. [2] [3] the mechanical part of the drive train is build by a double oscillator as it is close to reality.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Dost:Mechanicalandelectrical_2011,
  author = {Dost, P. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Mechanical and electrical behaviour of an electric vehicles drive train due to the choice of the control-system},
  booktitle = {IECON 2011 - 37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1426 -1431},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2011.6119517}
}
Einwächter, F. and Sourkounis, C. An incentive-based approach for the distribution of decentralized power generation and the integration of electric vehicles 2010 International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{EinwaechterSourkounis:Anincentive-basedapproachforthedistributionofdecentralizedpowergenerationandtheintegrationofelectricvehicles_2010,
  author = {Einwächter, F. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {An incentive-based approach for the distribution of decentralized power generation and the integration of electric vehicles},
  booktitle = {International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)},
  year = {2010}
}
Evers, C., Wörner, K., Hoffmann, F. and Steimel, A. Flux-guided control strategy for pulse pattern changes without transients of torque and current for high power IGBT-inverter drives 2001 9th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A flux-guided regime for pulse pattern changes (PPC) of quasi-synchronous pulse patterns without unwanted transients for high power inverter drives is presented. Contrasting known timer-controlled strategies the orientation at the stator flux guarantees predictable distortions in torque and current at the PPCs, too.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{EversWoernerHoffmannSteimel:Flux-guidedcontrolstrategyforpulsepatternchangeswithouttransientsoftorqueandcurrentforhighpowerIGBT-inverterdrives_2001,
  author = {Evers, Ch. and Wörner, K. and Hoffmann, F. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Flux-guided control strategy for pulse pattern changes without transients of torque and current for high power IGBT-inverter drives},
  booktitle = {9th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2001}
}
Fang, J., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Modelling of Anisotropic Synchronous Machine in Stator Reference Frame 2010 IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 1-5  inproceedings  
Abstract: Interior permanent magnet-synchronous machines (IPMSM) feature
many favourable properties for e-mobility application as high power density and
good efficiency. However, they require careful modelling because of strong
anisotropies of the rotor, as they are also known from salient-pole synchronous
machines. These anisotropies are often accounted for by different values for the
d-axis and q-axis inductances in a rotor-flux- oriented coordinate system. With
regard to asynchronous machine control, stator-flux-oriented control could
provide improved dynamic behaviour – especially in the field-weakening range.
The representation of fault conditions inside the machine, leading to asymmetrical
machine parameters, suggests a phase-wise description instead of the usual twocomponent
(d-q or space-vector) analysis. In order to allow comprehensive
studies of the overall vehicle behaviour, the torque has to be calculated in time
domain, taking into account the influences of any occurring symmetric and
asymmetric faults.
In this paper, the torque is derived for arbitrary combinations of Ld and Lq in the
stator-reference frame in phase-wise description. The calculation is based on
space-vector theory (commen approach) and on the co-energy approach, which
provides a basis for stator-flux-oriented control and for the simulation of fault
conditions inside the machine. A comparison of the phase-wise representation to
the common approach – using rotor-flux-oriented d-axis and q-axis inductances –
is performed, in order to verify the results. Different operational scenarios are
simulated to outline the capability of the chosen approach.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{FangHeisingStaudtSteimel:ModellingofAnisotropicSynchronousMachineinStatorReferenceFrame_2010,
  author = {Jie Fang and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Modelling of Anisotropic Synchronous Machine in Stator Reference Frame},
  booktitle = {IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1-5}
}
Fang, J., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Modelling of Anisotropic Synchronous Machine in Stator-Reference Frame including Torque Calculation 2010 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT, RAILWAY AND SHIP PROPULSION (ESARS)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Interior permanent magnet-synchronous machines (IPMSM) feature
many favourable properties for e-mobility application as high power density and
good efficiency. However, they require careful modelling because of strong
anisotropies of the rotor, as they are also known from salient-pole synchronous
machines. These anisotropies are often accounted for by different values for the
d-axis and q-axis inductances in a rotor-flux- oriented coordinate system. With
regard to asynchronous machine control, stator-flux-oriented control could
provide improved dynamic behaviour – especially in the field-weakening range.
The representation of fault conditions inside the machine, leading to asymmetrical
machine parameters, suggests a phase-wise description instead of the usual twocomponent
(d-q or space-vector) analysis. In order to allow comprehensive
studies of the overall vehicle behaviour, the torque has to be calculated in time
domain, taking into account the influences of any occurring symmetric and
asymmetric faults.
In this paper, the torque is derived for arbitrary combinations of Ld and Lq in the
stator-reference frame in phase-wise description. The calculation is based on
space-vector theory (commen approach) and on the co-energy approach, which
provides a basis for stator-flux-oriented control and for the simulation of fault
conditions inside the machine. A comparison of the phase-wise representation to
the common approach – using rotor-flux-oriented d-axis and q-axis inductances –
is performed, in order to verify the results. Different operational scenarios are
simulated to outline the capability of the chosen approach.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{FangHeisingStaudtSteimel:ModellingofAnisotropicSynchronousMachineinStator-ReferenceFrameincludingTorqueCalculation_2010,
  author = {Jie Fang and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Modelling of Anisotropic Synchronous Machine in Stator-Reference Frame including Torque Calculation},
  booktitle = {ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT, RAILWAY AND SHIP PROPULSION (ESARS)},
  year = {2010}
}
Fang, J., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Model for Urban Transport Applications 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) become more and more
interesting for urban transport applications (tramways and busses with electric drives),
because performance increases at decreasing cost. Their compact design facilitates customerfriendly
low-floor design and reduces weight, the efficiency at rated power can be by about 3
percent higher. Demands concerning ruggedness can be fulfilled by interior permanentmagnet
(IPMSM) design. Sufficient field-weakening capability by negative d-stator current
component allows for a suitable speed range with constant power and for emergency braking.
Adequate real-time control systems with high torque dynamics require suitable models of the
machine. A high level of complexity, like in finite-element models, cannot be used because of
limited calculation time. If the model is too simple, important effects are neglected, for
example the reluctance torque of IPMSM. The model should also give the main parameters
for the operation of the machine and allow the rating of the converter feeding the machine.
With special respect to field weakening and reluctance torque, optimal operation points have
to be identified, taking into account the limited rating of the converter. For this, special
conditions of light-rail applications like emergency braking are considered. In this way the
machine can be operated with high efficiency at minimal losses of machine and converter and
fulfill the demanding conditions of urban transport applications.
This paper gives a suitable model for the IPMSM fulfilling the above requirements and
suggests suitable areas of operation based on an example machine.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{FangHeisingStaudtSteimel:Permanent-MagnetSynchronousMachineModelforUrbanTransportApplications_2010a,
  author = {Jie Fang and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine Model for Urban Transport Applications},
  booktitle = {12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Gemmeke, K., Müller, E., Runge, W., Schulze, H. and Steimel, A. Drehstromantrieb für einen DT3 - Triebwagen der Hamburger Hochbahn 1980 BBC-Nachrichten(12), pp. 471-483  article  
Abstract: Für die Hamburger Hochbahn AG wurde von BBC ein dreieiliger U-Bahn-Triebwagen mit einem statischern Wechselrichter und robusten Drehstrom-Kurzschlussläufer-Motoren ausgerüstet. Das neue Antriebskonzept zeichnet sich gegenüber der bisherigen Lösung aus durch hohe Zuverlässigkeit, durch Energieeinsparungen und geringen Unterhaltungsaufwand. Der Beitrag informiert über die Antriebsausrüstung und den Eignungsnachweis für das Antriebssystem.
BibTeX:
@article{GemmekeMuellerRungeSchulzeSteimel:DrehstromantriebfuereinenDT3-TriebwagenderHamburgerHochbahn_1980,
  author = {Gemmeke, K. and Müller, E. and Runge, W. and Schulze, H. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Drehstromantrieb für einen DT3 - Triebwagen der Hamburger Hochbahn},
  journal = {BBC-Nachrichten},
  year = {1980},
  number = {12},
  pages = {471-483}
}
Gierse, G. and Steimel, A. Direct Self Control for High Power Traction Drives 1996 1st Techn. Scientific Report on the Project "Hosting and Training of Researchers on the Study and Testing of Components and Systems for Urban and Rail Electrical Transport", Workshop on Direct Torque Control, pp. 226-240  inproceedings  
Abstract: High-power drives for traction vehicles demand an extreme exploitation of all components and at the same time an extraordinarily fast torque response to cope with disturbations as slipping or sliding and pantograph bouncing. As the nominal d.c. link voltage of European GTO inverters is very high the switching frequency has to be rather low, e.g. 250 Hz. This slow switching is taken optimally into account by the control strategy of "Direct Self Control" developped some 11 years ago by Depenbrock. Now over 1000 locomotives and railcars are equipped with DSC by ABB Transportation.

The main features of DSC are:

Extremely high dynamics only limited by the physical constraints

Robustness against fluctuation of input voltage

Low sensibility against parameter deviations

No uncontrolled transients as torque and flux are guided directly

Simple changes of mode of operation

No explicite coordinate transformations necessary

Safe keeping of set limits which are most important for high power converters

The paper is going to explain how Direct Self Control realizes these feature

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GierseSteimel:DirectSelfControlforHighPowerTractionDrives_1996,
  author = {Gierse, G. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Direct Self Control for High Power Traction Drives},
  booktitle = {1st Techn. Scientific Report on the Project "Hosting and Training of Researchers on the Study and Testing of Components and Systems for Urban and Rail Electrical Transport", Workshop on Direct Torque Control},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {226-240}
}
Gorski, M., Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Realtime Simulation of Control Algorithms Including the Dedicated Control Hardware 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A number of different steps are necessary to develop power-electronic systems:
After preparation of a concept, the layout of the controller is made based on simulation. The
process is finalised by implementation and test on the power-electronic system itself. A
successful final test requires, however, that the controller hardware controlling the powerelectronic
system functions properly. Additionally, the control software must be implemented
correctly and function properly.
At this point, a real-time simulator becomes useful which allows to verify the function of the
controller hard- and software in real-time. This is realized by simulating the entire controlled
system – including the power electronics – by means of state equations in a simulation
algorithm. This method offers the possibility to test the control hardware without endangering
the costly power electronics.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GorskiBarteltHeisingStaudtSteimel:RealtimeSimulationofControlAlgorithmsIncludingtheDedicatedControlHardware_2010,
  author = {Matthias Gorski and Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Realtime Simulation of Control Algorithms Including the Dedicated Control Hardware},
  booktitle = {12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Gorski, M., Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Heising, C. Combined-HIL -- integrating HIL and AHIL 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: In the process of developing power-electronic systems safe test procedures are crucial: Before connecting
the power-electronic system and its load, Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) equipment verifies proper
function of the control. Modern HIL systems are digital systems - introducing a non-negligible delay
based on the duration of their main loop.
This disadvantage is solved by the concept of Advanced Hardware-in-the-Loop (AHIL), where switching
instants and associated switching states are transferred digitally to the from the control to the AHIL. This
removes the delay and considerably increases the precision of simulation. The disadvantage of AHIL is
that the modulator and the switching-signal generator of the control is no longer tested.
Integrating a special switching signal analysis into the AHIL system – knowing in advance switching
instants and switching states – removes the disadvantage of AHIL completely. Moreover, a detailed
analysis of modulator and switching signal generator becomes available. In this way, error detection and
information for debugging are considerably improved even in comparison to known HIL strategies. This
new concept is named Combined Hardware-in-the-Loop, CHIL.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GorskiBarteltOettmeierStaudtHeising:Combined-HIL--integratingHILandAHIL_2011,
  author = {Matthias Gorski and Roman Bartelt and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Carsten Heising},
  title = {Combined-HIL -- integrating HIL and AHIL},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Gorski, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Laboratory Set-Up for High-Power Cable-Car Applications 2010 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT, RAILWAY AND SHIP PROPULSION (ESARS)  inproceedings  
Abstract: The power chain of a cable car has to meet special
requirements concerning grid coupling and drive concept: On
the grid side very low short-circuit power is available and on the
drive side the bearable torque ripple is very low. Due to the long
cable connections, the use of very line friendly line-side converter
topologies and control concepts is a must. The minimization of
the torque ripple is the main requirement of the speed-variable
drive in order to guarantee safety and comfort issues. Further
requirements are relevant in context of redundancy.
In this paper, a power-chain topology for a cable car drive
system is suggested which fulfils the introduced requirements.
Furthermore, control concepts for both, line-side and drive-
side converters, are presented. A 200 kW laboratory set-up is
presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GorskiHeisingStaudtSteimel:LaboratorySet-UpforHigh-PowerCable-CarApplications_2010,
  author = {Matthias Gorski and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Laboratory Set-Up for High-Power Cable-Car Applications},
  booktitle = {ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT, RAILWAY AND SHIP PROPULSION (ESARS)},
  year = {2010}
}
Gorski, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz railway-grid lab representation using a DC-excited slip-ring induction generator 2009 6th International Converence Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), pp. 204 - 209  inproceedings  
Abstract: Railway grid interaction is a major concern when developing the power train of a
railway traction vehicle and its control. Two main areas have to be taken into account:
Line-current harmonics and interharmonics are limited with often extremely low limit values
compared to nominal current, respecting the properties and safety issues of railway track
circuits. Grid stability is influenced by the varying grid impedance seen by the moving
vehicle, in connection with varying resonances, influenced by other vehicles and the actual
grid configuration.
The development of an optimized control scheme for the power train of a railway traction
vehicle operating at the 15-kV, 16.7-Hz-grid – widely used in central Europe – requires
advanced simulation tools as well as suitable laboratory experiments for verification. This
paper is focused on the slip-ring induction generator feeding the 16.7-Hz single-phase
laboratory grid, featuring the behavior of rotary converters and the special provisions taken to
enable single-phase operation.
Measurement results for stationary and dynamic behavior with different loads are presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GorskiHeisingStaudtSteimel:Single-Phase50-kW16.7-Hzrailway-gridlabrepresentationusingaDC-excitedslip-ringinductiongenerator_2009,
  author = {Gorski, M. and Heising, C. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz railway-grid lab representation using a DC-excited slip-ring induction generator},
  booktitle = {6th International Converence Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {204 - 209}
}
Gorski, M., Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Flux-Based Control Concept for Grid-Side and Machine-Side Converter for Speed-Variable High-Power Pumps 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: The electrical power chain of a speed-variable high-power pump has to meet special requirements [1]
concerning grid coupling and drive concept: On the grid side, in many applications very low short-circuit
power is available and, on the drive side, the bearable torque ripple is very low. Due to the long cable
connections, the use of very line friendly line-side converter topologies and control concepts is a must.
The minimization of the torque ripple is the main requirement of the speed-variable drive in order to
guarantee safety and to keep the physical stress low. Further requirements are relevant in context of
redundancy. In this paper, a electrical power-chain topology for a speed-variable high-power pump is
suggested which fulfils the introduced requirements. Furthermore, control concepts for both, line-side
and drive-side converters, are presented. A 200 kW laboratory set-up is presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GorskiOettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Flux-BasedControlConceptforGrid-SideandMachine-SideConverterforSpeed-VariableHigh-PowerPumps_2011,
  author = {Matthias Gorski and Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Flux-Based Control Concept for Grid-Side and Machine-Side Converter for Speed-Variable High-Power Pumps},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Grimmig, M. and Steimel, A. Speed-Sensorless Induction Motor Drive System for Underground Pipeline Capsule Transportation 2002 3rd International Symposium On Underground Freight Transportation by Capsule Pipelines and other Tube/Tunnel Systems (ISUFT)  inproceedings  
Abstract: At Ruhr-University Bochum an innovative concept of transportation of mixed cargo through subterranean pipelines with driverless, automatically and individually controlled capsules "CargoCap" is under development. From the mechanical specifications as masses, speed, acceleration and resistance the tractive/braking effort vs. speed diagram is deduced which serves as basis for the layout of the electrical drive.
For maximum reliability four squirrel-cage induction motors fed by two voltage-source IGBT inverters have been selected as main drive, representing the state-of-the-art of Light Rail vehicle drives.
For the control of the variable voltage variable frequency (VVVF) inverter the so-called Indirect Stator-Quantities Control based on stator-flux orientation is presented, which attains high torque dynamics as well as it is extremely robust against supply voltage disturbations.
From the aspects of cost, reliability and drive volume it is recommended to dispense with speed sensors in the motors. A new scheme to estimate the speed with high accuracy only from motor quantities already available in the control is described. It enables speed estimation even in the case of infinitely slow changes between driving and braking at extremely low speeds.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{GrimmigSteimel:Speed-SensorlessInductionMotorDriveSystemforUndergroundPipelineCapsuleTransportation_2002,
  author = {Grimmig, M. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Speed-Sensorless Induction Motor Drive System for Underground Pipeline Capsule Transportation},
  booktitle = {3rd International Symposium On Underground Freight Transportation by Capsule Pipelines and other Tube/Tunnel Systems (ISUFT)},
  year = {2002}
}
Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Enhancement of Low-Frequency System Stability of 60-Hz Railway Power Grids 2010 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC), pp. S7-1 - S7-8  inproceedings  
Abstract: Low-frequency stability is a major concern in electric-traction
applications independent of the specific nominal grid frequency. The related
low-frequency oscillations occur in two dual scenarios – either one or only few
traction vehicles are operated far away from the next substation or a multiple
of vehicles is operated at a strong grid. With the state-of-the-art control
concept for the line-side converter, low-frequency oscillations can be observed
in the range of 10 to 30 percent of the nominal grid frequency.
In this paper, a multivariable control concept for four-quadrant line-side
converters is presented which notably improves the stability. Additionally, the
transient response of the line converter is enhanced. The superiority of the
proposed control method is outlined using time-domain simulation which has
been performed using a simulation approach for multi-terminal powerelectronic
applications.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingBarteltOettmeierStaudtSteimel:EnhancementofLow-FrequencySystemStabilityof60-HzRailwayPowerGrids_2010tobepublished,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Roman Bartelt and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Enhancement of Low-Frequency System Stability of 60-Hz Railway Power Grids},
  booktitle = {14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {S7-1 - S7-8}
}
Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Improvement of Low-Frequency System Stability in 50-Hz Railway-Power Grids by Multivariable Line-Converter Control in a Distance-Variation Scenario 2010 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Stability issues are a major concern in railway
grids. Although these problems are most experienced in 16.7-
Hz applications, low-frequency oscillations also occur in 50-Hz
railway grids.
In this paper, an advanced multivariable control concept is
presented. Beside achieving very good dynamic behavior, the
approach improves the introduced stability problem. The proper
operation of the control is verified using measurement results.
A time domain simulation verifies the stability problem caused
by the state-of-the-art control and shows the improved performance
of the multivariable control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingBarteltOettmeierStaudtSteimel:ImprovementofLow-FrequencySystemStabilityin50-HzRailway-PowerGridsbyMultivariableLine-ConverterControlinaDistance_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Roman Bartelt and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Improvement of Low-Frequency System Stability in 50-Hz Railway-Power Grids by Multivariable Line-Converter Control in a Distance-Variation Scenario},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)},
  year = {2010}
}
Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Simulation Tool for Coupled but Independently Controlled Power-Electronic Systems Applied to NPC Converters 2010 Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Fast and accurate simulation of complex power-electronic systems with high
accuracy is a major concern, e.g. in context of wind-energy parks and their grid coupling. In
these decentralised, coupled topologies all power-electronic devices are controlled
independently which has to be emulated by an advanced simulation concept. Moreover, the
interaction of many energy-storing elements like capacitors and inductors, partly resulting
from cables with low damping, may easily cause indesirable resonances. The effect of the
switching of power electronic devices on these structures requires a time resolution
down to the individual switchings.
In this paper the capability of the presented approach to fulfil these requirements is shown by
simulation results of a multiterminal system containing two neutral-point-clamped (NPC)
three-level inverters sharing one DC link. The two partial DC-link capacitor voltages are
independently controlled by two 2-level converters fed via a transformer with a star- and
delta-connected windings on the secondary side.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingBarteltOettmeierStaudtSteimel:SimulationToolforCoupledbutIndependentlyControlledPower-ElectronicSystemsAppliedtoNPCConverters_2010,
  author = {Heising, Carsten and Bartelt, Roman and Oettmeier, Martin and Staudt, Volker and Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Simulation Tool for Coupled but Independently Controlled Power-Electronic Systems Applied to NPC Converters},
  booktitle = {Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Analysis of Single-phase 50-kW 16.7-Hz PI-controlled Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter Under Different Grid Characteristics 2009 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Vol. 57(2), pp. 523-531 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{HeisingBarteltOettmeierStaudtSteimel:AnalysisofSingle-phase50-kW16.7-HzPI-controlledFour-QuadrantLine-SideConverterUnderDifferentGridCharacteristics_2009,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Roman Bartelt and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Analysis of Single-phase 50-kW 16.7-Hz PI-controlled Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter Under Different Grid Characteristics},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {57},
  number = {2},
  pages = {523-531}
}
Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Single-phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter for Railway Traction Applications 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Railway grid interaction is a major concern when developing the power chain of a railway
traction vehicle and its control. Especially line-current harmonics and grid stability have to be
considered.
Developing an optimised control scheme for the four-quadrant line-side converter of a railway
traction vehicle operating at the 15-kV, 16.7-Hz grid requires advanced simulation tools,
combined with suitable laboratory experiments for verification.
This paper describes the simulation concept, the control structure, the realisation of a
four-quadrant line-side converter test bench and measurement results for stationary and
dynamic behaviour, verifying excellent operation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingBarteltStaudtSteimel:Single-phase50-kW16.7-HzFour-QuadrantLine-SideConverterforRailwayTractionApplications_2008,
  author = {Heising, C. and Bartelt, R. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Single-phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter for Railway Traction Applications},
  booktitle = {13th International Power Electronics and Motion Conference},
  year = {2008}
}
Heising, C., Fang, J., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Modelling and Simulation of Multiphase IM with Sinusoidal Flux Distribution used in Naval Applications including Torque Calculation 2010 IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 1-5  inproceedings  
Abstract: To guarantee high availability of naval drives and power-supply systems,
error scenarios have to be simulated. The chosen differential-equations set has to
represent the physical behaviour of complex naval induction machines, e.g. with 5- or
7- phase or double-star stator windings including asymmetric faults which is not
featured by any simplified single-phase ECD.
After a brief introduction of used simulation concept and modelling approach for
motor drives with sinusoidal flux distribution, the torque calculation for n stator and m
rotor windings is presented. The performance is demonstrated with the simulation of
a five-phase induction machine emulating a single-phase failure.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingFangBarteltStaudtSteimel:ModellingandSimulationofMultiphaseIMwithSinusoidalFluxDistributionusedinNavalApplicationsincludingTorqueCalculation_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Jie Fang and Roman Bartelt and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Modelling and Simulation of Multiphase IM with Sinusoidal Flux Distribution used in Naval Applications including Torque Calculation},
  booktitle = {IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1-5}
}
Heising, C., Fang, J., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Modelling of Rotary Converter in Electric Railway Traction Power Systems for Stability Analysis 2010 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT, RAILWAY AND SHIP PROPULSION (ESARS), pp. 1-6  inproceedings  
Abstract: The central European 16.7-Hz railway grid is fed – beside by own power
sources – by rotary and static converters. In context of recent low-frequency stability
problems in the Scandinavia region, primary the interaction of four-quadrant line-side
traction-converter control and surrounding rotary converters is a major concern.
Therefore, adequate models for time-domain simulation are necessary.
In this paper, a set of differential equations – representing even the transient behaviour
of a rotary converter – are derived. Based on this resulting differential equations,
simulations studies of the transient behaviour are presented. Furthermore, the
behaviour of rotary converters with and without a damper-winding system on the
three-phase side is analysed. Additionally, the three-phase machine can be simulation
with anisotropic characteristics.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingFangBarteltStaudtSteimel:ModellingofRotaryConverterinElectricRailwayTractionPowerSystemsforStabilityAnalysis_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Jie Fang and Roman Bartelt and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Modelling of Rotary Converter in Electric Railway Traction Power Systems for Stability Analysis},
  booktitle = {ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS FOR AIRCRAFT, RAILWAY AND SHIP PROPULSION (ESARS)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Heising, C., Fang, J., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Model for Analysis of Fault-Ride Through and Asymmetrical Generator-Side Faults 2010 MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion  inproceedings  
Abstract: Wind-generated power still becomes more and more
important; its contribution to overall energy generation cannot
be neglected anymore. Consequently, the grid-code requirements
are tightened to guarantee stable operation of the interconnected
grid in case of local faults. For this, induction-machine modells
are needed which on the one hand allow for precise simulation of
fault conditions also inside the generator itself and on the other
hand correctly represent the dynamic properties of the doubly-fed
induction machine. Known models only allow simulation studies
of symmetrical machines. In this paper, a modelling approach for
induction machines is introduced which also allows asymmetrical
configurations, resulting e.g. from faults inside the machine.
In detail, the adhanced DFIG modell is deduced and verified
by mesurement results. Based on the resulting set of first-order
differential equations several fault scenarios are simulated. Also,
unsymmetrical machine-side faults are included.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingFangStaudtSteimel:Doubly-FedInductionGeneratorModelforAnalysisofFault-RideThroughandAsymmetricalGenerator-SideFaults_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Jie Fang and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Model for Analysis of Fault-Ride Through and Asymmetrical Generator-Side Faults},
  booktitle = {MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion},
  year = {2010}
}
Heising, C., Gorski, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway-Grid Representation Featuring Variable Grid Parameters 2008 39th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, pp. 920-924  inproceedings  
Abstract: Railway grid interaction is a major concern when developing the power train of a railway
traction vehicle and its control. Two main areas have to be taken into account: Line current
harmonics are limited ? with often extremely low limit values, compared to nominal current ?
respecting the properties and safety issues of railway track circuits. Grid stability is influenced
by the varying grid impedance seen by the moving vehicle, in connection with varying
resonances, influenced by other vehicles and the actual grid configuration.

The development of an optimized control scheme for the power train of a railway traction
vehicle operating at the 15-kV, 16.7-Hz grid widely used in central Europe requires advanced
simulation tools as well as suitable laboratory experiments for verification. This paper
describes the simulation concept, the control concept and the realization of an advanced
railway-grid representation in the lab, featuring real-time adjustable impedance and voltage
harmonics.
The power-electronic basis for the grid representation in the lab, feed-back and feed-
forward control, including compensation of nonlinear effects of the inverter, are described.
Simulation and measurement results for stationary and dynamic behavior are presented,
verifying excellent operation.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingGorskiStaudtSteimel:Single-phase50-kW16.7-Hzrailway-gridrepresentationfeaturingvariablegridparameters_2008,
  author = {Heising, C. and Gorski, M. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway-Grid Representation Featuring Variable Grid Parameters},
  booktitle = {39th IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {920-924}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Fang, J., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Modelling Method for Complex Induction Machines Used in Naval Applications Using an Advanced Simulation Concept 2009 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS), pp. 278 - 281  inproceedings  
Abstract: To be able to guarantee high availability of naval drives and power-supply systems, error
scenarios have to be simulated. At this, the chosen set of differential equations has to model
the physical behavior of complex induction machines used in naval applications, e.g.
induction machines with 5- or 7 phases or with double-star stator windings including
asymmetric faults which is not featured by any simplified single-phase ECD.
After a brief introduction of the used simulation concept, an approach for modeling complex
motor drives is presented. The excellent performance is demonstrated with the simulation of a
three-phase induction machine emulating an failure occuring in one inverter phase leg.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierBarteltFangStaudtSteimel:ModellingMethodforComplexInductionMachinesUsedinNavalApplicationsUsinganAdvancedSimulationConcept_2009,
  author = {Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. and Bartelt, R. and Fang, J. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Modelling Method for Complex Induction Machines Used in Naval Applications Using an Advanced Simulation Concept},
  booktitle = {IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {278 - 281}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Jie, F., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Simulation of Asymmetric Faults of a Five-phase Induction Machine used in Naval Applications 2009 35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 1298-1303  inproceedings  
Abstract: In naval applications high availability is a must. Therefore fault scenarios of naval
drives and power-supply systems have to be simulated in detail. In order to model the
physical behaviour of complex induction machines in an adequate way including asymmetric
faults which are not featured by any simplified single-phase ECD, a set of differential
equations has to be formulated. Though the presented approach is applied to a five-phase
induction machine, it is a matter of fact, that the simulation approach can also be applied to
any other kind of polyphase machine, e.g. induction machines with seven-phases or with
double-star stator windings.
After a brief introduction of the used simulation concept and the modeling approach for
complex motor drives, the excellent performance is demonstrated with the simulation of a
five-phase induction machine emulating three different failure modes occuring in one inverter
phase leg: line interruption, frozen inverter state and IGBT gate defect.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierBarteltJieStaudtSteimel:SimulationofAsymmetricFaultsofaFive-phaseInductionMachineusedinNavalApplications_2009,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier and Roman Bartelt and Fang Jie and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Simulation of Asymmetric Faults of a Five-phase Induction Machine used in Naval Applications},
  booktitle = {35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1298-1303}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Admittance Representation of an Advanced Multivariable Control for 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter 2010 Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Grid stability is a major concern for the control of a traction vehicle line-side
converter. To achieve best dynamic performance, the obligatory resonant circuit has to be
considered during the control design process. This paper includes a brief derivation of a
multivariable control for the line-side converter fulfilling these requirements. Excellent
operation is verified by measurement results. Additionally, the admittance representation of
this advanced control is given – essential for railway-traction applications – and compared to
the admittance representation of a standard PI-control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierBarteltStaudtSteimel:AdmittanceRepresentationofanAdvancedMultivariableControlfor16.7-HzRailwayTractionLine-SideConverter_2010,
  author = {Heising, Carsten and Oettmeier, Martin and Bartelt, Roman and Staudt, Volker and Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Admittance Representation of an Advanced Multivariable Control for 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter},
  booktitle = {Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Advanced Simulation Concept for Onboard Ship Grids Featuring Complex Multiterminal Power-Electronic Systems 2009 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS), pp. 170 - 173  inproceedings  
Abstract: State-of-the-art naval applications offer a high level of complexity, containing e.g. linear,
hybrid and nonlinear elements. To achieve both, high supply reliability and high voltage
quality, the topics grid stability, interaction and error scenarios have to be taken into account
in the early conceptual design work-phase which is dominated by simulative analysis.
In this paper a simulation concept is presented providing high accuracy, short simulation time
and the use of multiterminal applications. Furthermore development time losses by program
portation are minimised using an interface for control algorithms implemented in C.
The capability of this concept is outlined by simulation results of a multiterminal DC ship
power-distribution grid containing four three-phase two-level inverters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierBarteltStaudtSteimel:AdvancedSimulationConceptforOnboardShipGridsFeaturingComplexMultiterminalPower-ElectronicsSystems_2009,
  author = {Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. and Bartelt, R. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Advanced Simulation Concept for Onboard Ship Grids Featuring Complex Multiterminal Power-Electronic Systems},
  booktitle = {IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {170 - 173}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Integrated Control of Single-Phase Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter and Machine-Side Inverter for Railway Traction Applications 2009 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), pp. 1-10  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierBarteltStaudtSteimel:IntegratedControlofSingle-PhaseFour-QuadrantLine-SideConverterandMachine-SideInverterforRailwayTractionApplications_2009,
  author = {Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. and Bartelt, R. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Integrated Control of Single-Phase Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter and Machine-Side Inverter for Railway Traction Applications},
  booktitle = {13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1-10}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Multivariable Pole-Placement Control Design for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter 2009 POWERENG 2009 - 2nd International Conference on Power Engineering, pp. 273 - 278  inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper a multivariable control of a fourquadrant converter (4qc) of a typical 16.7-Hzrailway
applications is derived in detail. Besides the DC-link voltage, this control strategy
includes the obligatory resonant circuit connected in parallel to the DC-link capacitor. On the
one hand the control of a 4qc of a traction railway vehicle has to provide a constant DC-link
voltage, on the other hand non-active power has to be minimised and grid stability has to be
maintained.
Excellent operation of the derived multivariable control is verified by measurement results,
showing good steady-state and transient behaviour.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierBarteltStaudtSteimel:MultivariablePole-PlacementControlDesignforaSingle-Phase50-kW16.7-HzRailwayTractionLine-SideConverter_2009,
  author = {Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. and Bartelt, R. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Multivariable Pole-Placement Control Design for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter},
  booktitle = {POWERENG 2009 - 2nd International Conference on Power Engineering},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {273 - 278}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Single-phase 50-kW 16.7-Hz PI-controlled Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter Lab Model fed by Rotary Converter 2009 6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), pp. 232 - 239  inproceedings  
Abstract: Four-quadrant line-side converters supplying PWM inverter-fed induction machines are a
standard application in railway traction vehicles. In scope of an extensive project aiming at an
advanced overall control scheme for traction vehicles taking amongst others grid interaction
and stability into account, the steady-state and transient operation of a single-phase 50-kW,
16.7-Hz four-quadrant line-side converter are analysed in detail. This topology is hereby fed
by a slip-ring induction generator (IG) with DC excitation, operating as railway-grid rotaryconverter
representation.
In this paper the structure of the 50-kW test bench representing a railway grid and a traction
vehicle and the used PC-based real-time control hardware are introduced. Despite the highly
disturbed rotary converter output voltage measurement results verifying excellent operation
are given for the line-side converter, whose PI-control scheme is described in detail. Hereby
two different loads are used: resistor and motor inverter.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierBarteltStaudtSteimel:Single-phase50-kW16.7-HzPI-controlledFour-QuadrantLine-SideConverterLabModelfedbyRotaryConverter_2009,
  author = {Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. and Bartelt, R. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Single-phase 50-kW 16.7-Hz PI-controlled Four-Quadrant Line-Side Converter Lab Model fed by Rotary Converter},
  booktitle = {6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {232 - 239}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Danielsen, S., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Improvement of Low-Frequency Railway Power System Stability Using an Advanced Multivariable Control Concept 2009 35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 560-565  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Low-frequency stability is a major concern in 16.7-Hz railway grids. Using stateof-
the-art railway control concepts low-frequency oscillations in the range of 2 – 5 Hz are
experienced, well documented but not finally solved in several publications.
In this paper an advanced multivariable control concept is demonstrated. Besides achieving
very good dynamic behavior, the approach improves the introduced stability problem. The
proper operation of the control is verified using measurement results. Furthermore the paper
includes a time constant analysis of railway grids and elementary assumptions for stability
investigations.
A state-of-the-art control is compared to the advanced multivariable control. The comparison
leads to the essential difference partly causing the low frequency stability problem. Finally a
time domain simulation verifies the stability problem caused by the state-of-the-art control
and shows the improved performance of the multivariable control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierDanielsenStaudtSteimel:ImprovementofLow-FrequencyRailwayPowerSystemStabilityUsinganAdvancedMultivariableControlConcept_2009,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier and Steinar Danielsen and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Improvement of Low-Frequency Railway Power System Stability Using an Advanced Multivariable Control Concept},
  booktitle = {35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {560-565}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Gorski, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Flux-Based Multivariable Control of a Three-Phase Active Front End Feeding a 16.7-Hz Single-Phase Load 2009 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), pp. 1-10  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierGorskiStaudtSteimel:Flux-BasedMultivariableControlofaThree-PhaseActiveFrontEndFeedinga16.7-HzSingle-PhaseLoad_2009,
  author = {Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. and Gorski, M. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Flux-Based Multivariable Control of a Three-Phase Active Front End Feeding a 16.7-Hz Single-Phase Load},
  booktitle = {13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1-10}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Gorski, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Implications of Resonant Circuit Adjustment Errors to the DC-link voltage in Single-Phase 16.7-Hz-Railway Applications 2009 6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), pp. 210 - 216  inproceedings  
Abstract: Traction vehicles operating in the single-phase 16.7-Hz-railway grid – typical for central
Europe – employ a resonant circuit connected in parallel to the DC-link capacitor. The
resonant circuit is necessary to take up the unavoidable grid power pulsation with double
frequency, leaving a smooth DC-link voltage. In reality grid-voltage frequency and resonance
frequency of the resonant circuit do not fit accurately: Manufacturing tolerances of resonantcircuit
capacitor and inductance lead to an adjustment error and the railway-grid frequency
moves within a defined interval, due to the power-frequency control, independent from the
European interconnected mains.
In this paper implications of the adjustment error are analysed. Additionally instructions for
parameter identification are given and backed by measurement results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierGorskiStaudtSteimel:ImplicationsofResonantCircuitAdjustmentErrorstotheDC-linkvoltageinSingle-Phase16.7-Hz-RailwayApplications_2009,
  author = {Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. and Gorski, M. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Implications of Resonant Circuit Adjustment Errors to the DC-link voltage in Single-Phase 16.7-Hz-Railway Applications},
  booktitle = {6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {210 - 216}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M. and Staudt, V. Pole-Restraining Control of three-phase Active Front End 2010 ISNCC - 10th Conference-Seminar International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation, pp. 132-137  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—State-of-the-art control approaches often neglect the time-variant
characteristics of power-electronic systems in favour of a time-averaged approach. In
consequence, the resulting system is partly instable, thus not optimally controlled. The
pole-restraining control (PRC) removes the inherent instability, giving considerably
improved dynamic behaviour.
These improvements are demonstrated for three-phase Active Front Ends (AFE). The
essentials of the pole-restraining control approach are explained, the improved
transient behaviour is illustrated by comparison to other state-of-the-art control
schemes.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierStaudt:Pole-RestrainingControlofthree-phaseActiveFrontEnd_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt},
  title = {Pole-Restraining Control of three-phase Active Front End},
  booktitle = {ISNCC - 10th Conference-Seminar International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {132-137}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M. and Staudt, V. Pole-Restraining Control of three-phase Active Front End 2010 International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation, pp. 68-73  inproceedings  
Abstract: State-of-the-art control approaches often neglect the time-variant
characteristics of power-electronic systems in favour of a time-averaged approach. In
consequence, the resulting system is partly instable, thus not optimally controlled. The
pole-restraining control (PRC) removes the inherent instability, giving considerably
improved dynamic behaviour.
These improvements are demonstrated for three-phase Active Front Ends (AFE). The
essentials of the pole-restraining control approach are explained, the improved
transient behaviour is illustrated by comparison to other state-of-the-art control
schemes.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierStaudt:Pole-RestrainingControlofthree-phaseActiveFrontEnd_2010a,
  author = {Heising, Carsten and Oettmeier, Martin and Staudt, Volker},
  title = {Pole-Restraining Control of three-phase Active Front End},
  booktitle = {International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {68-73}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Pole-Restraining Control of the Grid-Side Converter of Wind-Power Generators 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Excellent control dynamics are of high importance for the machine-side as well as for the grid-side
control of wind-power generators. On the grid side, fault-ride through and the connection to weak grids
with low short-circuit power pose high requirements. This paper presents a pole-restraining control
for the grid-side converter, assuming a back-to-back of the power electronics. In contrast to state-ofthe-
art control approaches, the pole-restraining control (PRC) removes an inherent system instability
of power-electronic converters, giving considerably improved dynamic behaviour. These improvements
are demonstrated for the grid-side converter of a wind-power generator. The essentials of the polerestraining
control approach are explained, the improved transient behaviour is illustrated by simulation
results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierStaudtSteimel:Pole-RestrainingControloftheGrid-SideConverterofWind-PowerGenerators_2011,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Pole-Restraining Control of the Grid-Side Converter of Wind-Power Generators},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Multivariable Pole-Restraining Control for a Single-Phase 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter 2010 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS), pp. 1-6  inproceedings  
Abstract: State-of-the-art control approaches often neglect the time-variant
characteristics of power-electronic systems in favour of a time-averaged approach. In
consequence, the resulting system is partly instable, thus not optimally controlled.
Polerestraining control takes the introduced characteristics into account. It is named
due to its main maxim – the restraining of the eigenvalue movement. In this paper, the
pole-restraining approach is applied to a single-phase line-side converter. The control
offers an excellent overall behaviour.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierStaudtSteimel:MultivariablePole-RestrainingControlforaSingle-Phase16.7-HzRailwayTractionLine-SideConverter_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Multivariable Pole-Restraining Control for a Single-Phase 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Pole Restraining - a Novel Control Approach for Power-Electronic Systems 2010 Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM), pp. 1-6  inproceedings  
Abstract: State-of-the-art control approaches often neglect the time-variant characteristics of powerelectronic
systems in favour of a time-averaged approach. In consequence, the resulting
system is partly instable, thus not optimally controlled. A novel control approach is presented,
taking the introduced characteristics into account. Due to its main maxim – the restraining of
the eigenvalue movement – it is named pole-restraining approach.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierStaudtSteimel:PoleRestraining-aNovelControlApproachforPower-ElectronicSystems_2010,
  author = {Heising, Carsten and Oettmeier, Martin and Staudt, Volker and Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Pole Restraining - a Novel Control Approach for Power-Electronic Systems},
  booktitle = {Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Heising, C., Oettmeier, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Pole-Restraining Control of Active Front End for Shore-Side Power Supply of Ships 2010 IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, pp. 1-6  inproceedings  
Abstract: Shore-side power supply by power-electronics systems for
merchant ships as well as for cruise ships is a new issue in electric-ship
technologies. Fault scenarios on-ship and within the harbour grid and the
variability of the parameters of on-ship distribution require fast and robust
control.
Pole-restraining control is a novel control approach, taking the time-variant
characteristics of power electronics fully into account. In consequence, the full
physically available control capability can be used. This paper gives a short
introduction of the pole-restraining control approach. A comparison to other
state-of-the-art control schemes illustrates the improvements.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingOettmeierStaudtSteimel:Pole-RestrainingControlofActiveFrontEndforShore-SidePowerSupplyofShips_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Pole-Restraining Control of Active Front End for Shore-Side Power Supply of Ships},
  booktitle = {IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1-6}
}
Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Assessment-Based Flux Trajectory Optimization 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Advanced flux-based or virtual-grid-flux-based control for machine-side and grid-side converters utilises
the physically available dynamics and provides robustness. Various realisations have already been
proposed and implemented.
The novel approach – which basic concept is introduced in this paper – even more directly takes the
properties of the converter into account. It seamlessly integrates stationary operation as well as slow
and fast dynamics. The optimal flux trajectory is selected from the relatively few possibilities resulting
from the discrete switching states of the converter and their combination. The criterion for optimality is
defined by weighed assessment rules in time domain.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingStaudtSteimel:Assessment-BasedFluxTrajectoryOptimization_2011,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Assessment-Based Flux Trajectory Optimization},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Speed-sensorless stator-flux-oriented control of induction motor drives in traction 2010 1st IEEE International Symposium on Sensorless Control for Electrical Drives (SLED 2010), pp. 100-106  inproceedings  
Abstract: Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) combines the principle of stator-fluxorientation
proven successful in Direct Self Control (DSC) with Pulse-Width Modulation
(PWM). High torque dynamics and robust behaviour against input voltage disturbance are
achieved in the whole operation range including field-weakening. After careful correction
of inverter-voltage errors and dc portions in the stator fluxes and currents not necessary
for the actual operation point the difference of the stator-current space vectors in the
machine and in the controlled model is employed for speed and stator resistance
estimation, allowing to dispense with speed sensors. A special flux management allows
infinitely slow change between driving and braking.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HeisingStaudtSteimel:Speed-sensorlessstator-flux-orientedcontrolofinductionmotordrivesintraction_2010,
  author = {Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Speed-sensorless stator-flux-oriented control of induction motor drives in traction},
  booktitle = {1st IEEE International Symposium on Sensorless Control for Electrical Drives (SLED 2010)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {100-106}
}
Henning, U., Petersen, A.J., Würgler, D., Staudt, V. and Pozzobon, P. Electrical system compatibility problems on the european railway network - ESCARV project results 2001 Railway Traction Systems Conference, pp. II/274-II/293  inproceedings  
Abstract: The ESCARV project (Electrical System Compatibility for Advanced Railway Vehicles) was successfully completed in 2000. The top objective of the project was to develop a set of tools, trusted by railways and industries, for reliably predicting and avoiding ESC problems before putting a system into operation. The ESC User-Group is officially launched in April 2001 for dissemination of the project results to a wide range of users not yet involved in the project partnership
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HenningPetersenWuerglerStaudtPozzobon:Electricalsystemcompatibilityproblemsontheeuropeanrailwaynetwork-ESCARVprojectresults_2001,
  author = {Henning, U. and Petersen, A. J. and Würgler, D. and Staudt, V. and Pozzobon, P.},
  title = {Electrical system compatibility problems on the european railway network - ESCARV project results},
  booktitle = {Railway Traction Systems Conference},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {II/274-II/293}
}
Henning, U., Petersen, A.J., Würgler, D., Staudt, V. and Pozzobon, P. Elektrische Systemkompatibilität im europäischen Bahnnetz - Ergebnisse des Projekts ESCARV 2001 Elektrische Bahnen
Vol. 99(6/7), pp. 284-291 
article  
Abstract: Das Projekt ESCARV (Electrical System Compatibility ESC for Advanced Railway Ve-hicles) wurde im Jahre 2000 erfolgreich abgeschlossen. Vorrangiges Ziel des Projektes war es, für Bahnen und die Bahnindustrie verlässliche Ansätze zu entwickeln, mit Hilfe derer ESC-Probleme vor Inbetriebsetzung eines Systems zuverlässig erfasst und ver-mieden werden können. Die ESC User Group wird offiziell im April 2001 gegründet, um die Ergebnisse des Projektes einem breiten Nutzerkreis, der noch nicht als Partner am Projekt beteiligt ist, zugänglich zu machen.
BibTeX:
@article{HenningPetersenWuerglerStaudtPozzobon:ElektrischeSystemkompatibilitaetimeuropaeischenBahnnetz-ErgebnissedesProjektsESCARV_2001,
  author = {Henning, U. and Petersen, A. J. and Würgler, D. and Staudt, V. and Pozzobon, P.},
  title = {Elektrische Systemkompatibilität im europäischen Bahnnetz - Ergebnisse des Projekts ESCARV},
  journal = {Elektrische Bahnen},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {99},
  number = {6/7},
  pages = {284-291}
}
Janßen, M. and Steimel, A. Direct Self Control with minimum torque ripple and high dynamics for a double three-level GTO inverter drive 2000 9th International Power Electronics & Motion Control Conference (PEMC)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A highly dynamic control scheme with very low torque ripple - Direct Self Control with torque hysteresis control - for very high power medium voltage induction motor drives fed by a double three-level inverter is presented. The machine and inverter control are explained and the proposed torque quality and dynamic is verified by measurements at a 180 kW lab drive.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JanssenSteimel:DirectSelfControlwithminimumtorquerippleandhighdynamicsforadoublethree-levelGTOinverterdrive_2000,
  author = {Janßen, M. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Direct Self Control with minimum torque ripple and high dynamics for a double three-level GTO inverter drive},
  booktitle = {9th International Power Electronics & Motion Control Conference (PEMC)},
  year = {2000}
}
Janßen, M., Steimel, A. and Wu, X.Q. A double three-level GTO inverter drive for high performance applications with stator-flux-oriented control 1999 8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Two highly dynamic control schemes with very low torque ripple - Indirect Stator-Quantities Control and Track Length Control - suited for very high power induction motor drives fed by a double three-level GTO inverter are presented. The machine and inverter controls are explained, the excellent torque quality and dynamic is verified by measurements at a 180 kW drive.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JanssenSteimelWu:Adoublethree-levelGTOinverterdriveforhighperformanceapplicationswithstator-flux-orientedcontrol_1999,
  author = {Janßen, M. and Steimel, A. and Wu, X. Q.},
  title = {A double three-level GTO inverter drive for high performance applications with stator-flux-oriented control},
  booktitle = {8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {1999}
}
Janßen, M., Steimel, A. and Wu, X.Q. Double Three-level High-Power Converter System for High Torque Dynamic and Minimum Line Interference 1998 Korea-German Advanced Power Electronics Symposium, pp. 161-166  inproceedings  
Abstract: This paper descibes highly dynamic control schemes for very high power induction motor drives fed by a double three-level inverter with very low torque ripple - Indirect Stator-Quantity Control, Direct Self Control and Track Length Control. The d.c. link is fed by a double three-level converter, too. The control scheme for the line converter minimizes line interference and yields optimal dynamics matching the dynamics of the drive part.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{JanssenSteimelWu:DoubleThree-levelHigh-PowerConverterSystemforHighTorqueDynamicandMinimumLineInterference_1998,
  author = {Janßen, M. and Steimel, A. and Wu, X. Q.},
  title = {Double Three-level High-Power Converter System for High Torque Dynamic and Minimum Line Interference},
  booktitle = {Korea-German Advanced Power Electronics Symposium},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {161-166}
}
Janssen, M. and Steimel, A. Direct Self Control with minimum torque ripple and high dynamics for a double three-level GTO inverter drive 2002 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Vol. 49(5), pp. 1065-1071 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{JanssenSteimel:DirectSelfControlwithminimumtorquerippleandhighdynamicsforadoublethree-levelGTOinverterdrive_2002,
  author = {Janssen, M. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Direct Self Control with minimum torque ripple and high dynamics for a double three-level GTO inverter drive},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {49},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1065-1071}
}
Kail, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Direct flux control for slow-switching high-power multilevel active front end 2003 10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: An improved control strategy for high-power multilevel active front ends (AFE) with low switching frequency based on the Direct Self Control (DSC) for induction machines in field-weakening operation is presented. The control system and the controller design are described and verified experimentally on a double three-level IGBT converter test bench. The results are presented and evaluated with respect to the suitability of this control method. The advantages as well as aspects for improvement and drawbacks of the proposed direct flux self control for high-power AFE converters with low switching frequency are pointed out.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KailStaudtSteimel:Directfluxcontrolofslow-switchinghigh-powermultilevelactivefrontend_2003,
  author = {Kail, M. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Direct flux control for slow-switching high-power multilevel active front end},
  booktitle = {10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2003}
}
Kail, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. PC-Based Control Hardware for 200-kW Double Three-Level Converter 2002 10th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: A digital control system based on generic x86 PC components was implemented in order to develop and evaluate control algorithms for high power active front ends (AFE) in the megawatt range on a scaled-down 200-kW test bench. In this paper the overall converter-system and its requirements to the digital control are described. A high performance/low cost target hardware for digital control is proposed that offers a reasonable alternative to powerful commercially available DSP systems. The crucial necessities for using a PC system as a reliable real-time platform are pointed out and several tests of the control hardware are proposed. Their results are presented and discussed with respect to the suitability of the PC system for hard realtime control. While most features of DSP systems are already implemented, aspects for improvement and drawbacks of the proposed system are pointed out as well
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KailStaudtSteimel:PC-basedcontrolhardwarefor200-kWdoublethree-levelconverter_2002,
  author = {Kail, M. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {PC-Based Control Hardware for 200-kW Double Three-Level Converter},
  booktitle = {10th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference},
  year = {2002}
}
Kail, M., Steimel, A. and Staudt, V. Direkte Flussregelung eines Mehrpunktnetzstromrichters hoher Leistung und niedriger Schaltfrequenz 2005 ETG-Kongress 2005  inproceedings  
Abstract: In diesem Beitrag wird eine Regelungsstrategie für selbstgeführte Mehrpunktnetzstromrichter
hoher Leistung und niedriger Schaltfrequenz vorgestellt, welche auf dem Prinzip der Direkten
Selbstregelung für Asynchronmaschinen im Feldschwächbereich beruht. Ausgewählte
Ergebnisse der experimentellen Untersuchungen an einer 200-kW-Modellanlage mit einem
IGBT-Doppeldreipunktstromrichter werden exemplarisch vorgestellt und im Hinblick
auf die Brauchbarkeit dieses Ansatzes diskutiert.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KailSteimelStaudt:DirekteFlussregelungeinesMehrpunktnetzstromrichtershoherLeistungundniedrigerSchaltfrequenz_2005,
  author = {Kail, M. and Steimel, A. and Staudt, V.},
  title = {Direkte Flussregelung eines Mehrpunktnetzstromrichters hoher Leistung und niedriger Schaltfrequenz},
  booktitle = {ETG-Kongress 2005},
  year = {2005}
}
Kail, M.M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Improved dynamic operation for direct flux control of active front ends with low switching frequency 2004 IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC '04)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A three-fold pulse pattern for direct flux control of high-power multilevel active front ends (AFE) with low switching frequency useful for reducing the harmonic content within the converter terminal voltage is introduced. It is shown that compared to a square-wave pulse pattern the increased switching frequency cannot serve to improve the dynamic response of the AFE. Within the framework of direct flux control a general method to increase the dynamic behavior of the AFE for a positive power change is then presented and experimental results obtained from implementation on a 200-kW double three-level IGBT converter test bench are shown and discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KailStaudtSteimel:Improveddynamicoperationfordirectfluxcontrolofactivefrontendswithlowswitchingfrequency_2004,
  author = {Kail, M. M. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Improved dynamic operation for direct flux control of active front ends with low switching frequency},
  booktitle = {IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC '04)},
  year = {2004}
}
Kampschulte, B. and Steimel, A. PWM-Inverter-fed AC Drive for Diesel-Electric Shunt Locomotives 1982 IEEE/IAS International Semiconductor Power Converter Conference (ISPCC), pp. 137-144  inproceedings  
Abstract: The improvement of power electronics now permits the economic use of inverter-fed induction motor drives with shunt locomotives. As an example the diesel electric locomotive DE 500 is presented. The components of the power conversion system are described. A control strategy is chosen to obtain minimuim fuel consumption of the diesel motor and high utilizationof the PWM-inverter. The traction motors are regulated by characteristics of stator current and slip frequency with a superposed power control circuit.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KampschulteSteimel:PWM-Inverter-fedACDriveforDiesel-ElectricShuntLocomotives_1982,
  author = {Kampschulte, B. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {PWM-Inverter-fed AC Drive for Diesel-Electric Shunt Locomotives},
  booktitle = {IEEE/IAS International Semiconductor Power Converter Conference (ISPCC)},
  year = {1982},
  pages = {137-144}
}
Kokes, M., Schöner, H.P. and Steimel, A. Untersuchung eines diskontinuierlich betriebenen Reihenschwingkreisstromrichters für ein Kfz-Wechselspannungsbordnetz unter Verwendung von Zustandszeigern 1996 Electrical Engineering
Vol. 79, pp. 465 - 472 
article  
Abstract: Zur Energieversorgung eines Wechselspannungsbordnetzes von Kraftfahrzeugen wird ein Stromrichter eingesetzt, welcher auf einem Reihenschwingkreisstromrichter basiert. Um das statische sowie dynamische Verhalten anschaulich beschreiben zu können, wird eine Beschreibungsform mittels normierter Zustandszeiger vorgestellt. Auf der Grundlage der hierdurch gewonnenen Erkenntnisse werden die statischen und dynamischen Eigenschaften des Netzes dargestellt und eine zeitoptimale Regelungsstruktur zur Strombegrenzung entworfen.

Modelling the series resonant converter with state vectors for an AC power distribution system in automotive applications

The energy source of an AC power distribution system for automotive applications is a converter based on a series resonant converter. For the description of the static and dynamic characteristics a normalized model with state vectors will be used. The modelling with state vectors is the basis for calculating the properties of the AC power distribution system. A nonlinear current limiter is designed with the state vector description.

BibTeX:
@article{KokesSchoenerSteimel:UntersuchungeinesdiskontinuierlichbetriebenenReihenschwingkreisstromrichtersfuereinKfz-WechselspannungsbordnetzunterVerwendung_1996,
  author = {Kokes, M. and Schöner, H. P. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Untersuchung eines diskontinuierlich betriebenen Reihenschwingkreisstromrichters für ein Kfz-Wechselspannungsbordnetz unter Verwendung von Zustandszeigern},
  journal = {Electrical Engineering},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {79},
  pages = {465 - 472}
}
Krafft, E. and Steimel, A. Measurement of the Radial Cathode Current Distribution During the Turn-Off Process of a 4-kA-IGCT Under Different Driving Conditions 2001 9th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: To investigate the radial cathode current distribution of an IGCT during the turnoff process a measurement adapter has been built, which enables to register the currents of the separate rings of cathode islands by means of Rogowski coils. Measurements with different driving gate-cathode voltages are presented
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KrafftSteimel:MeasurementoftheRadialCathodeCurrentDistributionDuringtheTurn-OffProcessofa4-kA-IGCTUnderDifferentDrivingConditions_2001,
  author = {Krafft, E. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Measurement of the Radial Cathode Current Distribution During the Turn-Off Process of a 4-kA-IGCT Under Different Driving Conditions},
  booktitle = {9th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2001}
}
Krafft, E., Steimel, A. and Steinke, J.K. Three-Level High-Power Inverters with IGCT and IGBT Elements Compared on the Basis of Measurements of the Device Losses 1999 8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Voltage source inverter systems equipped with IGBT and IGCT devices contend in the field of medium and high voltage and high-power applications. Measurements in a synthetic test circuit deliver parameters for the comparison of high-power medium-voltage three-level inverters employing these devices. The goal is a trade-off of output power and efficiency vs. switching frequency of the concepts snubberless IGBT, IGCT with di/dt-limitation and - aiming at series connection - IGCT with additional dv/dt-snubbers.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KrafftSteimelSteinke:Three-LevelHigh-PowerInverterswithIGCTandIGBTElementsComparedontheBasisofMeasurementsoftheDeviceLosses_1999,
  author = {Krafft, E. and Steimel, A. and Steinke, J. K..},
  title = {Three-Level High-Power Inverters with IGCT and IGBT Elements Compared on the Basis of Measurements of the Device Losses},
  booktitle = {8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {1999}
}
Krost, G., Holtschneider, T., Ebert, A., Graf, K.M., Sourkounis, C., Einwächter, F., Quante, T. and Stoeber, P. Transparency in the Distribution System 2010 VDE/ETG-Fachtagung "Smart Cities" zu Elektromobilität und intelligent vernetztem Heim  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{KrostHoltschneiderEbertGrafSourkounisEinwaechterQuanteStoeber:TransparencyintheDistributionSystem_2010,
  author = {Krost, G. and Holtschneider, T. and Ebert, A. and Graf, K. M. and Sourkounis, C. and Einwächter, F. and Quante, T. and Stoeber, P.},
  title = {Transparency in the Distribution System},
  booktitle = {VDE/ETG-Fachtagung "Smart Cities" zu Elektromobilität und intelligent vernetztem Heim},
  year = {2010}
}
Meyer, D., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Control with two degrees of freedom for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway-Grid Representation 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: For the investigation of the interaction between rail vehicle and railway grid in a laboratory, a fully controlled
railway grid representation is essential. Only this can emulate the variation of grid impedances
and include line-voltage harmonics which are frequently found on railway grid voltage. Such a grid emulation
is based on power electronics and needs advanced control concepts to follow set-point changes,
react to changes of the operation point of the rail vehicle and suppress disturbances. This paper presents
an advanced control concept featuring two degrees of freedom: Reactions to set-point variations and
reactions to disturbances are parametrized individually, allowing for optimal tuning of the control. Two
versions are discussed – using different numbers of directly available quantities. Simulation results
for stationary and dynamic behaviour at different load steps are presented, verifying proper operation.
These simulation base on the parameters of an existing test bench, very good match between simulation
and experiment has been verified in previous work.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{MeyerHeisingStaudtSteimel:ControlwithtwodegreesoffreedomforaSingle-Phase50-kW16.7-HzRailway-GridRepresentation_2011,
  author = {Daniel Meyer and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Control with two degrees of freedom for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway-Grid Representation},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Energy Yield and Power Fluctuation of Different Control Methods for Wind Energy Converters 2011 Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on
Vol. 47(3), pp. 1480 -1486 
article DOI  
Abstract: With worldwide increasing shares of electricity generated by wind energy converters (WECs), their influence on the mains stability and contribution to reliable energy supply becomes more and more relevant. The system management of WECs has great influence on the power yield and the damping/amplification of wind-caused power fluctuations. This paper compares the performance of different control methods for WECs, regarding their energy yield and electrical power-output fluctuation at different wind conditions. The results show that the stochastic dynamic optimization control combines very high energy yield with the highest damping of fluctuations.
BibTeX:
@article{Ni:EnergyYieldand_2011,
  author = {Bingchang Ni and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Energy Yield and Power Fluctuation of Different Control Methods for Wind Energy Converters},
  journal = {Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {47},
  number = {3},
  pages = {1480 -1486},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2011.2126551}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Stochastic dynamic optimization for wind energy converters 2011 COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Vol. 30(1), pp. 265-279 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{NiSourkounis:Stochasticdynamicoptimizationforwindenergyconverters_2011,
  author = {Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Stochastic dynamic optimization for wind energy converters},
  journal = {COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {30},
  number = {1},
  pages = {265-279}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Control strategies for energy storage to smooth power fluctuations of wind parks 2010 15th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON), pp. 973 -978  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Fluctuating wind speed cause power output fluctuations of wind parks. A concept of dynamic conditioning was developed to smooth these fluctuations. This paper gives a brief introduction to the energy conditioning concept, discusses various energy storage systems and compares control strategies for a fly wheel energy storage to smooth the power fluctuations. The storage controls, tolerance band and stochastic dynamic optimization, were implemented and compared. By the application of dynamic storage systems an intermediate storage of the wind energy is realized. Therefore short time fluctuation of the energy sources can be absorbed directly on location.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:Controlstrategiesenergy_2010,
  author = {Bingchang Ni and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Control strategies for energy storage to smooth power fluctuations of wind parks},
  booktitle = {15th IEEE Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference (MELECON)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {973 -978},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MELCON.2010.5475916}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Energy Yield and Power Fluctuation of Different Control Methods for Wind Energy Converters 2010 45th IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), pp. 1 -7  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: With worldwide increasing shares of electricity generated by wind energy converters, their influence on the mains stability and their reliable energy contribution becomes more and more relevant. The system management of wind energy converters has great influence on the power yield and the damping/amplification of wind caused power fluctuations. This paper compares the performance of different control methods for wind energy converters, regarding their energy yield and electrical power output fluctuation at different wind conditions. The results show that the Stochastic Dynamic Optimization control combines very high energy yield with the best fluctuation damping.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:EnergyYieldand_2010,
  author = {Bingchang Ni and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Energy Yield and Power Fluctuation of Different Control Methods for Wind Energy Converters},
  booktitle = {45th IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1 -7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2010.5615951}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Influence of Wind-Energy-Converter Control Methods on the Output Frequency Components 2009 IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Vol. 45(6), pp. 2116 -2122 
article DOI  
Abstract: This paper analyzes the influence of different wind-energy-converter control methods on the connected electrical grid. As the wind energy propagates through the converter to the mains, their frequency components are influenced by the conversion processes. The plant control strategies have a major influence on these components. In particular, frequencies between 2 and 8 Hz can cause undesired flicker effects in the connected grid. For the grid stability, it is beneficial to dampen these frequency components in the power output. The influences of the control methods on these frequency components are analyzed in this paper.
BibTeX:
@article{Ni:InfluenceofWind-Energy-Converter_2009,
  author = {Bingchang Ni and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Influence of Wind-Energy-Converter Control Methods on the Output Frequency Components},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {45},
  number = {6},
  pages = {2116 -2122},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2009.2031784}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Investigations on energy yield and power fluctuation from different control methods for wind energy converters at various wind conditions 2009 Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on, pp. 1 -10  inproceedings  
Abstract: The amount of electricity generated by wind power converters is world wide steadily growing. In many countries it has become a political and public interest to support this development. From the wind park owner side of view it is of essential interest to generate and sell as much electricity as possible. With increasing shares of wind energy in the electrical power supply, their influence on the mains stability and their reliable energy contribution will become more relevant. Especially at points of common coupling of weak grid branches fluctuating power output of wind energy converters can be harmful for the grid stability. The system management of wind energy converters has great influence on the power yield and the damping/amplification of wind caused power fluctuations. This paper compares a new control approach, the stochastic dynamic optimization, with common control methods, regarding their power yield and electrical power output fluctuation for different wind conditions. The results show that the stochastic dynamic optimization control approach has superior performance regarding the power yield and low power output fluctuation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:Investigationsenergyyield_2009,
  author = {Bingchang Ni and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Investigations on energy yield and power fluctuation from different control methods for wind energy converters at various wind conditions},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1 -10}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Influence of control methods on torque oscillations in wind energy converters 2008 IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC), pp. 897 -900  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Stochastically fluctuating wind energy density has major influence on wind energy converters performance. Dynamic power flow variations in the power drain of wind energy converters lead, among others, to dynamical torque changes. Through the power drain, the load peaks are fed forward to the electrical grid and cause early damage of mechanical components, thermal overload of electrical components, as well as voltage variations on the electrical grid. In this paper the influence of control methods on the cumulated load in the wind energy converter's drive train is analyzed. The control methods considered in this paper are optimal rotational speed control, linear power average control, self searching optimum and stochastic dynamic optimization. Conventional control approaches, optimal speed, linear power average, and self searching optimum lead to high shares of critical drive train torque. The stochastic dynamic optimization control significantly reduces the occurrence of unfavorably high torque values.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:Influenceofcontrol_2008,
  author = {Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Influence of control methods on torque oscillations in wind energy converters},
  booktitle = {IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference (PESC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {897 -900},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PESC.2008.4592043}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Influence of Wind Energy Converter Control Methods on the Output Frequency Components 2008 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Conference (IAS), pp. 1 -7  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of different wind energy converter control methods on the connected electrical grid. As the wind energy propagates through the converter to the mains, their frequency components are influenced by the conversion processes. The plant control strategies have a major influence on these components. Especially frequencies between 2 Hz and 8 Hz can cause undesired flicker effects in the connected grid. For the grid stability it is beneficial to dampen these frequency components in the power output. The influences of the control methods on these frequency components are analyzed in this paper.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:InfluenceofWind_2008,
  author = {Bingchang Ni and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Influence of Wind Energy Converter Control Methods on the Output Frequency Components},
  booktitle = {IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Conference (IAS)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1 -7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/08IAS.2008.138}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Investigations on control methods for variable speed wind energy converters at strongly fluctuating wind power 2008 34th Annual conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 241 -246  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Wind energy will play a very important role in the future electrical power supply. With growing shares, the focus of the plant control will have to shift from maximum power yield to also meet grid friendly aspects, like stable power output. This paper analyses the influence of wind energy converter controls on the plants behaviour. Three conventional controls and a new control approach, the stochastic dynamic optimisation, are analysed. The results show the superior performance of the stochastic dynamic optimisation in regard of combining high power yield and low power fluctuations. Hence, grid friendly and energetic aspects can be best achieved by implementing the stochastic dynamic optimisation control in wind energy converters.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:Investigationscontrolmethods_2008,
  author = {Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Investigations on control methods for variable speed wind energy converters at strongly fluctuating wind power},
  booktitle = {34th Annual conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {241 -246},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2008.4757959}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Power output characteristics analysis of wind energy converter control methods 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC), pp. 2331 -2336  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The stochastically fluctuating offer of wind energy limits the supply capacity in electrical grids by means of technical and economical reasons. This paper analyses the influence of the control method on the power output characteristic of wind energy converters. Conventional controls, like optimal rotor speed control, and a new control, the stochastic dynamic optimization, are compared in regard of their grid impact. The results show the superior performance of the stochastic dynamic optimization. The power gradient and the deviation from the mean power output value are significantly lowered, reducing the wind energy converterpsilas impact on the grid stability.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:Poweroutputcharacteristics_2008,
  author = {Bingchang Ni and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Power output characteristics analysis of wind energy converter control methods},
  booktitle = {13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {2331 -2336},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635611}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Qualification of control methods for wind energy converters by output power quality 2008 IEEE 16th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED), pp. 179 -184  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: With the share of wind energy increasing in the electrical power supply, its influence on grid stability will become significant. The focus of the plant control will have to shift from maximum power yield to grid friendly layout. This paper analyses the influence of different wind energy converter control methods on the connected electrical grid. Conventional controls, like optimal rotor speed control, and a new control, the stochastic dynamic optimization, are analyzed. The results show the superior performance of the stochastic dynamic optimization in regard of combining high power yield and low power fluctuation. Therefore, reducing the wind energy converter impact on the grid stability can be achieved by utilizing appropriate control structures.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Ni:Qualificationofcontrol_2008,
  author = {Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Qualification of control methods for wind energy converters by output power quality},
  booktitle = {IEEE 16th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {179 -184},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2008.4602138}
}
Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C. Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy inWeak Grids by Optimal Power Control 2008 International Workshop on Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South-Eastern Europe (DEMSEE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{NiSourkounis:LargeScaleIntegrationofWindEnergyinWeakGridsbyOptimalPowerControl_2008,
  author = {Ni, B. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Large Scale Integration of Wind Energy inWeak Grids by Optimal Power Control},
  booktitle = {International Workshop on Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South-Eastern Europe (DEMSEE)},
  year = {2008}
}
Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. LQ-Optimized Multivariable Control for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter 2009 13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierBarteltHeisingStaudtSteimel:LQ-optimizedmultivariablecontrolforasingle-phase50-kW16.7-HzRailwayTractionLine-SideConverter_2009,
  author = {Oettmeier, M. and Bartelt, R. and Heising, C. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {LQ-Optimized Multivariable Control for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway Traction Line-Side Converter},
  booktitle = {13th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  year = {2009}
}
Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V., Steimel, A., Tietmeier, S., Bock, B. and Dörlemann, C. Wechselrichtertester -- ein leistungselektronischer Maschinenemulator für den Test von Traktionswechselrichtern 2010; ETG-Fachbericht 126, VDE-Verlag Berlin Offenbach ETG-Elektro Mobil Ausstellung (EMA)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Verschiedene Entwicklungstests, Typentests sowie oft die Fertigungsendkontrolle von neuen leistungselektronischen Umrichtern
sowie deren Regelung erfordern Messungen mit der Nennleistung. Dafür müssen passende Maschinen verfügbar
sein. Werden Umrichter und Regelung für verschiedene Antriebe in einem größeren Leistungsspektrum ausgelegt, ist ein
hoher Aufwand mit der Bereitstellung der Testumgebung verbunden.
Eine schnelle und kostenoptimale Entwicklung und Verifikation von Prototypen sowie die Qualitätssicherung im Produktionsprozess
können durch den Austausch der Prüflinge gegen einen passend ausgelegten und geregelten Umrichter erzielt
werden.
In diesem Beitrag wird ein solches Konzept für Traktionsumrichter mit hoher Leistung und hohen Frequenzen vorgestellt
und die Funktionsfähigkeit anhand von Messungen verifiziert.

Functional verification of new power-electronic converters and their control requires final verification at a test bench. For
this suitable machine-sets have to be available. Changing type or rating of the machine requires high effort.
Fast and cost-effective prototype development and testing and production-site quality monitoring becomes possible by
replacing the machine-set with a suitably designed and controlled converter. Changing type and parameters of the machine
is then mainly equivalent to changing the parameters of converter control.
This paper describes concept and realization of such a machine emulator for high-power high-frequency application and
proves it by measurements.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierBarteltHeisingStaudtSteimelTietmeierBockDoerlemann:Wechselrichtertester--einleistungselektronischerMaschinenemulatorfuerden_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel and Stephan Tietmeier and Burkhard Bock and Christoph Dörlemann},
  title = {Wechselrichtertester -- ein leistungselektronischer Maschinenemulator für den Test von Traktionswechselrichtern},
  booktitle = {ETG-Elektro Mobil Ausstellung (EMA)},
  year = {2010; ETG-Fachbericht 126, VDE-Verlag Berlin Offenbach}
}
Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V., Steimel, A., Tietmeier, S., Bock, B. and Dörlemann, C. Power-Electronic-Based Machine Emulator for High-Power High-Frequency Drive Converter Test 2011 IEEE Power Electronics Society NEWSLETTER
Vol. 25(1), pp. 33-36 
article  
Abstract: Functional verification of new power-electronic con-verters and
their control requires final verification at a test bench. For this suitable
machine-sets have to be available. Changing type or rating of the machine
requires high effort.
Fast and cost-effective prototype development and testing and production-site
quality monitoring becomes possible by replacing the machine-set with a
suitably designed and controlled converter.
Changing type and parameters of the machine is then mainly equivalent to
changing the parameters of converter control. This paper describes concept
and realization of such a machine emulator for high-power high-frequency
application and proves it by measurements
BibTeX:
@article{OettmeierBarteltHeisingStaudtSteimelTietmeierBockDoerlemann:Power-Electronic-BasedMachineEmulatorforHigh-PowerHigh-FrequencyDriveConverterTest_2011,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel and Stephan Tietmeier and Burkhard Bock and Christoph Dörlemann},
  title = {Power-Electronic-Based Machine Emulator for High-Power High-Frequency Drive Converter Test},
  journal = {IEEE Power Electronics Society NEWSLETTER},
  year = {2011},
  volume = {25},
  number = {1},
  pages = {33-36}
}
Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V., Steimel, A., Tietmeier, S., Bock, B. and Doerlemann, C. Power-Electronic Based Machine Emulator for High-Power High-Frequency Drive Converter Test 2010 IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Functional verification of new power-electronic con-verters and
their control requires final verification at a test bench. For this suitable
machine-sets have to be available. Changing type or rating of the machine
requires high effort.
Fast and cost-effective prototype development and testing and production-site
quality monitoring becomes possible by replacing the machine-set with a
suitably designed and controlled converter.
Changing type and parameters of the machine is then mainly equivalent to
changing the parameters of converter control. This paper describes concept
and realization of such a machine emulator for high-power high-frequency
application and proves it by measurements.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierBarteltHeisingStaudtSteimelTietmeierBockDoerlemann:Power-ElectronicBasedMachineEmulatorforHigh-PowerHigh-FrequencyDriveConverterTest_2010,
  author = {M. Oettmeier and R. Bartelt and C. Heising and V. Staudt and A. Steimel and St. Tietmeier and B. Bock and Ch. Doerlemann},
  title = {Power-Electronic Based Machine Emulator for High-Power High-Frequency Drive Converter Test},
  booktitle = {IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Bartelt, R., Heising, C., Staudt, V., Steimel, A., Tietmeyer, S., Bock, B. and Doerlemann, C. Machine Emulator: Power-Electronics Based Test Equipment for Testing High-Power Drive Converters 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Today the development process for power electronics includes modeling,
simulation, control design, implementation in hardware and finally the test of the hardware at
a suitable test bench. In case of drive systems, changing to a different type of machine or to a
different rating of the machine requires only relatively few modifications of the control and its
parameters. Nevertheless, at least the prototype has to be tested under conditions close to
reality. In many cases even the test of each converter and its control is required before
shipping to the customer.
Prototype testing and production-side quality monitoring can be improved considerably
concerning speed and cost if the machine – the parameters of which depend on type and rating
– is replaced by a suitably designed and controlled converter. In this case modifications of the
control of this ”machine emulator” or ”converter tester” are sufficient to adapt to the
converter and control to be tested. It is important that the parameters of the converter and the
parameters of the machine it is to emulate are largely decoupled by the control of the
emulator.
This paper describes the general concept of such a test equipment and shows practical results
obtained from an industrial prototype which is by now ready for commissioning.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierBarteltHeisingStaudtSteimelTietmeyerBockDoerlemann:MachineEmulator:Power-ElectronicsBasedTestEquipmentforTestingHigh-PowerDriveConverters_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Roman Bartelt and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel and St. Tietmeyer and B. Bock and Ch. Doerlemann},
  title = {Machine Emulator: Power-Electronics Based Test Equipment for Testing High-Power Drive Converters},
  booktitle = {12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Gorski, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. LQ-optimized multivariable control for a single-phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz railway-grid representation featuring variable grid parameters 2009 6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), pp. 224 - 231  inproceedings  
Abstract: Railway grid interaction is a major concern when developing the power train of a railway
traction vehicle and its control. Two main areas have to be taken into account: Line current
harmonics and grid stability. The development of an optimized control scheme for a
converter-based single-phase 15-kV, 16.7-Hz railway-grid representation requires advanced
simulation tools as well as suitable laboratory experiments for verification. This paper
describes the derivation of a multivariable control and the initial operation of
a grid-representation test bench.
The power-electronic basis for the grid representation in the lab and the multivariable control
concept based on LQoptimization, including modelling, set-point value computation,
feed-forward control, observer and compensation of nonlinear effects of the inverter are
described. Measurement results for stationary and dynamic behaviour are presented, verifying
excellent operation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierGorskiHeisingStaudtSteimel:LQ-optimizedmultivariablecontrolforasingle-phase50-kW16.7-Hzrailway-gridrepresentationfeaturingvariablegridparameters_2009,
  author = {Oettmeier, M. and Gorski, M. and Heising, C. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {LQ-optimized multivariable control for a single-phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz railway-grid representation featuring variable grid parameters},
  booktitle = {6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {224 - 231}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Advanced control concept for shoreside power supply of ships 2010 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Economical and ecological motives are pushing shoreside power supply by
power electronics systems for merchant ships as well as for cruise ships. Also, final
tests of on-ship power systems and generation are simplified considerably. Fault
scenarios on-ship and within the harbour grid and the variability of the parameters of
on-ship distribution – each ship is special, and large consumers or generators are
switched on and off –require fast and robust control. Oscillations in the filters shipside
and harbour-grid-side of the power electronics may result from transients – and can be
mitigated by the advanced control schemes.
The paper introduces the a flux-based control concept and applies it to the typical
structure of a shoreside power supply system, verifying excellent characteristics and
robustness even under asymmetric fault conditions by simulation. The quality of the
simulation results is cerified by comparison to laboratory experiments.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingBarteltStaudtSteimel:Advancedcontrolconceptforshoresidepowersupplyofships_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Roman Bartelt and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Advanced control concept for shoreside power supply of ships},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Flux-Based Multivariable Control of a Static Converter Feeding a 16.7-Hz Single-Phase Load 2009 35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)  inproceedings  
Abstract: AC 16.7-Hz single-phase railway grids are fed a mongst others via back-to-back
converters from the three-phase public grid. State-of-the-art control schemes neglect the
resonant circuit connected in parallel to the DC-link capacitor due to common slow power
ramps. In case of dynamic load changes and short circuits in the grids this simplified control
approach leads to a long and very weakly damped transient response. Thus, oversized
components are required. These additional costs can be avoided by taking the resonant circuit
into account. The flux-based multivariable control for the three-phase-side converter presented
in this paper is based on this approach assuring both, excellent stationary and dynamic
behaviour.
Here this control concept is presented in detail. Simulation results outline the mentioned
advantages. The used simulation concept is verified by measurement results of a load step of
90 kW in a 400-V converter.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingBarteltStaudtSteimel:Flux-BasedMultivariableControlofaStaticConverterFeedinga16.7-HzSingle-PhaseLoad_2009,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Roman Bartelt and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Flux-Based Multivariable Control of a Static Converter Feeding a 16.7-Hz Single-Phase Load},
  booktitle = {35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2009}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Fang, J., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Stator-Flux-Orientated Control of Anisotrop PMSM 2011 Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: With increasing performance of magnet material and decreasing cost permanent magnet synchronous
machines (PMSM) become more and more important for practical use in light railway and e-car applications.
Excellent torque dynamics are extremely important in these applications – not because of
acceleration or deceleration, but to meet additional demands as slip-slide protection and electronic stability
control. Dynamics are limited by the rating and the switching frequency of the converter. Therefore,
the control has to make optimal use of these limited resources.
This paper presents a stator-flux based control scheme for anisotrop PMSM which gives the maximum
physically possible dynamics with regard to the limitations stated above. It bases on the indirect stator
control (ISC) scheme for asynchronous machines and is similar to the virtual-grid-flux-based control of
active front end converters (AFE). Simulation and measurement results proof the concept.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingFangStaudtSteimel:Stator-Flux-OrientatedControlofAnisotropPMSM_2011,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Jie Fang and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Stator-Flux-Orientated Control of Anisotrop PMSM},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intellegent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Gorski, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Flux-Based Multivariable Control of a Static Converter Feeding a 16.7-Hz Single-Phase Load under Different Fault Conditions 2010 Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Actually, AC 16.7-Hz railway grids are fed via back-to-back converters from the public grid.
A flux-based multivariable control of the three-phase-side converter is presented which takes
the obligatory resonant circuit of the single-phase 16.7-Hz inverter in the common DC link
into account, leading to excellent stationary and dynamic behaviour. In this paper the dynamic
behaviour of the introduced control is analysed under different fault conditions.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingGorskiStaudtSteimel:Flux-BasedMultivariableControlofaStaticConverterFeedinga16.7-HzSingle-PhaseLoadunderDifferentFaultConditions_2010,
  author = {Oettmeier, Martin and Heising, Carsten and Gorski, Matthias and Staudt, Volker and Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Flux-Based Multivariable Control of a Static Converter Feeding a 16.7-Hz Single-Phase Load under Different Fault Conditions},
  booktitle = {Power Conversion Intelligent Motion (PCIM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Jie, F., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. DC-Excited Slip-Ring Induction Generator Supported by an H-bridge Inverter Emulating a Single-Phase, 16.7-Hz Railway Grid 2009 35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)  inproceedings  
Abstract: In order to optimise grid interaction, advanced control schemes for the power train
of a railway traction vehicle operating at the 15-kV, 16.7-Hz-grid have to take grid interaction
into account. To achieve a satisfying performance, advanced simulation tools as well as
suitable laboratory experiments for verification are needed.
This paper is focussed on a 16.7-Hz single-phase laboratory grid emulation consisting of a
slip-ring induction generator providing fundamental power and a synchronised dead-beat
controlled four-quadrant inverter (4qi) emulating line-current harmonics and grid impedance.
Both, the verification of the used induction generator by measurements and simulation results
outlining the dynamic behavior of the single induction generator and in a second step the
behavior of the IG synchronised with the 4qi at load-steps are presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingJieStaudtSteimel:DC-ExcitedSlip-RingInductionGeneratorSupportedbyanH-bridgeInverterEmulatingaSingle-Phase16.7-HzRailwayGrid_2009,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Fang Jie and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {DC-Excited Slip-Ring Induction Generator Supported by an H-bridge Inverter Emulating a Single-Phase, 16.7-Hz Railway Grid},
  booktitle = {35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2009}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V., Liebau, H. and Jakoby, H. FPGA-based PMSM Emulation: Concept and Verification 2012 Power Electronics Intelligent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) become more and more interesting for urban transport
applications (cars, tramways and busses with electric drives) because performance increases at decreasing
cost. Their compact design facilitates customer-friendly low-floor design and reduces weight.
Demands concerning ruggedness can be fulfilled by interior permanent-magnet (IPMSM) design. Sufficient
field-weakening capability by negative d-stator current component allows for a suitable speed range
with constant power and for emergency braking.
To develop adequate real-time control systems (hardware and software) with high torque dynamics
requires advanced simulation tools to emulate the complex behaviour of a PMSM with connected motor
inverter. Having a real-time simulation available, control algorithms as well as the dedicated control
hardware can be tested in conditions close to reality. The real-time emulation of a PMSM faces several
challenges: If the model is too simple, important effects are neglected. On the other side, a detailed
simulation with finite-element models cannot be achieved in real-time because of the limited calculation
time and resources.
In this paper the commissioning of a real-time simulation environment hosted on a field programmable
gate-array (FPGA) is documented. Details about the hardware platform as well as the implemented
models are discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtLiebauJakoby:FPGA-basedPMSMEmulation:ConceptandVerification_2012,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Henrik Liebau and Henrik Jakoby},
  title = {FPGA-based PMSM Emulation: Concept and Verification},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intelligent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2012}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V., Liebau, H. and Jakoby, H. FPGA-based Real-Time Simulation for Emulation of PMSM 2011 Power Electronics Intelligent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM) become more and more interesting for urban transport
applications (cars, tramways and busses with electric drives) because performance increases at decreasing
cost. Their compact design facilitates customer-friendly low-floor design and reduces weight.
Demands concerning ruggedness can be fulfilled by interior permanent-magnet (IPMSM) design. Sufficient
field-weakening capability by negative d-stator current component allows for a suitable speed range
with constant power and for emergency braking.
To develop adequate real-time control systems (hardware and software) with high torque dynamics
requires advanced simulation tools to emulate the complex behaviour of a PMSM with connected motor
inverter. Having a real-time simulation available, control algorithms as well as the dedicated control
hardware can be tested in conditions close to reality. The real-time emulation of a PMSM faces several
challenges: If the model is too simple, important effects are neglected. On the other side, a detailed
simulation with finite-element models cannot be achieved in real-time because of the limited calculation
time and resources.
In this paper the commissioning of a real-time simulation environment hosted on a field programmable
gate-array (FPGA) is documented. Details about the hardware platform as well as the implemented
models are discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtLiebauJakoby:FPGA-basedReal-TimeSimulationforEmulationofPMSM_2011,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Henrik Liebau and Henrik Jakoby},
  title = {FPGA-based Real-Time Simulation for Emulation of PMSM},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Intelligent Motion Power Quality (PCIM)},
  year = {2011}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Dead-Beat Control Algorithm for Single-Phase 50-kW AC Railway Grid Representation 2010 IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics
Vol. 25(5), pp. 1184 - 1192 
article  
Abstract: The control of four-quadrant converters (4QC) of
traction vehicles fed by an ac railway grid has to meet very restrictive
limitations with regard to harmonics and stability. The challenge
is increased by continuously changing the position-dependent
grid impedance and voltage harmonics already contained in the
grid voltage. Testing a 4QC control in a lab, therefore, requires
a railway grid representation that both emulates variable grid
impedance and grid-voltage harmonics. The paper presents an
innovative solution to this problem that employs a 4Q inverter
with a suitably designed new control scheme. As the rated power
is not high, compared to the traction vehicle fed, the control has
to be effective, taking each switching event of the inverter into account.
For the design of the control, a suitable simulation is needed,
which is also presented in this paper. A comparison of simulation
and measurement results is given, proving excellent results.
BibTeX:
@article{OettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Dead-BeatControlAlgorithmforSingle-Phase50-kWACRailwayGridRepresentation_2010,
  author = {Oettmeier, Martin and Heising, Carsten and Staudt, Volker and Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Dead-Beat Control Algorithm for Single-Phase 50-kW AC Railway Grid Representation},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {25},
  number = {5},
  pages = {1184 - 1192}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Dead-Beat Inverter Control of Filter-Output Voltage for Feeding Islanding Grids 2010 MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion  inproceedings  
Abstract: The importance of islanding grids is steadily growing. Especially, the use of selfcommutated
power-electronic devices in medium- and high-voltage DC transmission
applications and the huge number of decentralized generators – e.g. wind turbines and solar
panels – speeds up this process. In such grid topologies, only low short-circuit power is
available. Therefore, a need for advanced inverter-control schemes emerges. These control
schemes have to be able to handle dynamic load changes with magnitudes in the same scale
as the rated power. In this paper, an advanced control of an inverter feeding such a grid is
presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Dead-BeatInverterControlofFilter-OutputVoltageforFeedingIslandingGrids_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Dead-Beat Inverter Control of Filter-Output Voltage for Feeding Islanding Grids},
  booktitle = {MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Flux-Based Control Concept for Grid-Side and Machine-Side Converter of Synchronous Machine Wind-Power Generator 2010 MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion  inproceedings  
Abstract: Excellent control dynamics are of high importance for the machine-side as
well as for the grid-side control of wind-power generators. On the generator side,
perfect match to actual wind conditions and torque adjustment for gear-saving
operation is vital. On the grid side fault-ride through and the connection to weak grids
with low short-circuit power pose high requirements. This paper presents flux-based
control concepts for both grid-side and machine-side converter assuming a
synchronous machine as a generator and a back-to-back two-level converter topology
for power electronics. Simulation results show the excellent operation of both controls
with the choosen topology.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Flux-BasedControlConceptforGrid-SideandMachine-SideConverterofSynchronousMachineWind-PowerGenerator_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Flux-Based Control Concept for Grid-Side and Machine-Side Converter of Synchronous Machine Wind-Power Generator},
  booktitle = {MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Flux-Based Control of PMSM 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)  inproceedings  
Abstract: With increasing performance of magnet material and decreasing cost permanent
magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) become more and more important for practical use in
light railway and e-car applications. Excellent torque dynamics are extremely important in
these applications - not because of acceleration or deceleration, but to meet additional
demands as slip-slide protection and electronic stability control. Dynamics are limited by the
rating and the switching frequency of the converter. Therefore, the control has to make
optimal use of these limited resources.
This paper presents a stator-flux based control scheme for PMSM which gives the maximum
physically possible dynamics with regard to the limitations stated above. It bases on the
indirect stator control (ISC) scheme for asynchronous machines and is similar to the virtualgrid-
flux-based control of active front end converters (AFE). The simulation results presented
are based on a simulation structure which is verified by measurement and simulation carried
out at an AFE.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Flux-BasedControlofPMSM_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Flux-Based Control of PMSM},
  booktitle = {12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Pole-Restraining Observer -- a Novel Observer Approach for Power-Electronic Systems 2010 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Linear design methods for state-quantity observers are used dominantly for
power-electronic systems. The main reasons are the problems related to advanced
approaches – namely complexity and the high time effort of the necessary stability prove
and the design process. In observer and control design, the special characteristics of
power-electronic systems are often neglected. The robustness and the quality – especially
of the state estimations of the observer – can be improved by the pole-restraining observer
(PRO) approach.
In this paper, the novel approach is introduced and the mathematical background is given.
The approach is applied to a single-phase converter. Simulation results illustrate the
quality of the resulting estimated signals.
ESARS
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Pole-RestrainingObserver--aNovelObserverApproachforPower-ElectronicSystems_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Pole-Restraining Observer -- a Novel Observer Approach for Power-Electronic Systems},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Stator-Flux-oriented Control of PMSM with highly-dynamic field-weakening operation 2010 IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Excellent torque dynamics are important in traction applications –
not because of acceleration or deceleration, but to meet additional demands
as supression of drive chain oscillations, slip-slide protection and electronic
stability control. Dynamics are limited by the rating and the switching
frequency of the inverter, which the control has to make optimal use of. This
paper presents a stator-flux-based control scheme for PMSM which gives the
maximum physically possible dynamics with regard to the limitations stated
above. The simulation results presented are based on a simulation structure
which is verified by measurement and simulation carried out at an AFE.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Stator-Flux-orientedControlofPMSMwithhighly-dynamicfield-weakeningoperation_2010,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Stator-Flux-oriented Control of PMSM with highly-dynamic field-weakening operation},
  booktitle = {IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference},
  year = {2010}
}
Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Dead-Beat Control for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway-Grid Representation Inverter Featuring Variable Grid Parameters 2009 POWERENG 2009 - 2nd International Conference on Power Engineering, pp. 279 - 284  inproceedings  
Abstract: To investigate railway grid interaction a fully controlled grid representation is essential in
order to emulate line-current harmonics and grid impedance. Based on a grid representation
– realised with a four-quadrant inverter – advanced control concepts for the power train of
railway traction vehicles can be developed.
In this paper the focus lies on the design of a dead-beat control of the grid inverter, including
system analysis, set-point value computation, details of the control design, observer and
compensation of nonlinear effects of the inverter. Measurement results for stationary and
dynamic behavior at load-steps are presented, verifying proper operation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Dead-BeatControlforaSingle-Phase50-kW16.7-HzRailway-GridRepresentationInverterFeaturingVariableGridParameters_2009,
  author = {Oettmeier, M. and Heising, C. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Dead-Beat Control for a Single-Phase 50-kW, 16.7-Hz Railway-Grid Representation Inverter Featuring Variable Grid Parameters},
  booktitle = {POWERENG 2009 - 2nd International Conference on Power Engineering},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {279 - 284}
}
Oettmeier, M., Spichartz, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Stator-Flux-Oriented Control of PMSM in Traction -- Experimental Results 2012 International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierSpichartzStaudtSteimel:Stator-Flux-OrientedControlofPMSMinTraction--ExperimentalResults_2012,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Moritz Spichartz and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Stator-Flux-Oriented Control of PMSM in Traction -- Experimental Results},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Electrical Systems for Aircraft, Railway and Ship Propulsion (ESARS)},
  year = {2012}
}
Oettmeier, M., Spichartz, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Test-Bench Set-Up for High-Power PMSM Test Drive for Validating Novel Control Schemes 2012 13th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{OettmeierSpichartzStaudtSteimel:Test-BenchSet-UpforHigh-PowerPMSMTestDriveforValidatingNovelControlSchemes_2012,
  author = {Martin Oettmeier and Moritz Spichartz and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Test-Bench Set-Up for High-Power PMSM Test Drive for Validating Novel Control Schemes},
  booktitle = {13th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2012}
}
Pavas, A., Staudt, V. and Torres-Sanchez, H. Discussion on existing methodologies for the responsibilities assignment problem. 2009 Przeglad Elektrotechniczny Electrical Reviev *
Vol. 85(1)Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Reviev) , R. 85, Nr. 1/2009, pp. 208-214 *, pp. 208-214 
article  
Abstract: This paper introduces the Responsibilities Assignment Problem (RAP) and discusses existing
methodologies by theory and examples. The RAP can be understood as the evaluation and
determination of the power quality disturbances and of the power quality conditions detriment
concerning source and amount. Selected details of this problem are presented in this paper, in
order to provide a conceptual background to understand the problem itself and to interpret the
characteristics of the currently available assessment methodologies. The existing methodologies
are summarized, their principles, characteristics, and application are illustrated by
means of an example. From the application results, a comparison of the mentioned methodologies
is shown to point out advantages and differences. In the framework of the conference
this paper could start and support a discussion about the assignment of responsibilities related
to power quality disturbances propagation and improvements of the existing methodologies
BibTeX:
@article{PavasStaudtTorres-Sanchez:Discussiononexistingmethodologiesfortheresponsibilitiesassignmentproblem._2009,
  author = {Pavas, A. and Staudt, V. and Torres-Sanchez, H.},
  title = {Discussion on existing methodologies for the responsibilities assignment problem.},
  booktitle = {Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Reviev) , R. 85, Nr. 1/2009, pp. 208-214 *},
  journal = {Przeglad Elektrotechniczny Electrical Reviev *},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {85},
  number = {1},
  pages = {208-214}
}
Pavas, A., Staudt, V. and Torres-Sánchez, H. Experimental Investigation of existing Methodologies for the Responsibilities Assignment Problem 2009 PowerTech *  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PavasStaudtTorres-Sanchez:ExperimentalInvestigationofexistingMethodologiesfortheResponsibilitiesAssignmentProblem_2009,
  author = {Pavas, A. and Staudt, V. and Torres-Sánchez, H.},
  title = {Experimental Investigation of existing Methodologies for the Responsibilities Assignment Problem},
  booktitle = {PowerTech *},
  year = {2009}
}
Peretto, L., Staudt, V., Sasdelli, R. and Tinarelli, R. Performance Comparison of a Deterministic and a Statistical Approach for the Analysis of Multi-Tone Signals 2001 IEEE Symposium on dignostics for electrical machines, power electronics and drives (SDEMPED), pp. 325-331  inproceedings  
Abstract: The electrical signals arising from the operation of power electronics devices, such as those used in adjustable speed drives and harmonic compensators, usually contain spectral components at frequencies not harmonically related. Very often, the industrial fre quency is not present in the voltage and current signals. They may feature a fundamental frequency far lower than the industrial one; they may even be nonperiodic. In monitoring and diagnostics of electrical equipment under these conditions, new methods for signal spectral analysis are therefore needed. The advantages and limitations of two different methods previously proposed by the authors are discussed in the paper also by analyzing both simulated and in-field measured signals.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PerettoStaudtSasdelliTinarelli:PerformanceComparisonofaDeterministicandaStatisticalApproachfortheAnalysisofMulti-ToneSignals_2001,
  author = {Peretto, L. and Staudt, V. and Sasdelli, R. and Tinarelli, R.},
  title = {Performance Comparison of a Deterministic and a Statistical Approach for the Analysis of Multi-Tone Signals},
  booktitle = {IEEE Symposium on dignostics for electrical machines, power electronics and drives (SDEMPED)},
  year = {2001},
  pages = {325-331}
}
Purcarea, C., Comnac, V., Cernat, M., Grimmig, M. and Steimel, A. Development and Adaptation of a Traction Inverter Control Software to Operate with Minimum Number of Sensors 2006 10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM  inproceedings  
Abstract: At Ruhr-University Bochum a new automatic underground mixed-cargo
transportation system “Cargo Cap” is under development. The electric drive consists of two
wheel-sets with individual wheels, driven by four induction motors, each pair fed in parallel
by one inverter, for redundancy reasons. A robust speed-sensorless control using a Real-Time
x86-based controller has been suggested. But when negotiating curves with small diameters
considerable speed differences of the parallel fed motors occur, much bigger than known from
conventional parallel operation of two wheel-sets in a bogie, making the speed estimation
system doubtful. An improved structure needing only one current sensor in addition to the two
commonly built into the inverter unit is under investigation, to maintain the stability of the
speed estimation. The adaptations and amendments in the control and simulation software
obtained are described. Now the real behaviour of the system can be easily modeled and
simulated.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{PurcareaComnacCernatGrimmigSteimel:DevelopmentandAdaptationofaTractionInverterControlSoftwaretoOperatewithMinimumNumberofSensors_2006,
  author = {Purcarea, C. and Comnac, V. and Cernat, M. and Grimmig, M. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Development and Adaptation of a Traction Inverter Control Software to Operate with Minimum Number of Sensors},
  booktitle = {10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM},
  year = {2006}
}
Rösner, J., Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C. Wind Energy Converter with Asynchronous Machines and Three-phase AC Chopper in Generator Mode 2000 European Transactions on Electrical Power  article  
BibTeX:
@article{RoesnerBeckSourkounis:WindEnergyConverterwithAsynchronousMachinesandThree-phaseACChopperinGeneratorMode_2000,
  author = {Rösner, J. and Beck, H.-P. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Wind Energy Converter with Asynchronous Machines and Three-phase AC Chopper in Generator Mode},
  journal = {European Transactions on Electrical Power},
  year = {2000}
}
Richter, F. and Sourkounis, C. Generating conforming time characteristics for stochastic technical processes 2008 IEEE 16th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED), pp. 1753 -1756  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Stochastic technical processes often require a source for time characteristics that match real processes. Therefore, a simulator of arbitrary, randomized time characteristics for the assessment of control circuits is needed. "Rejection sampling" is a good method for the sufficiently exact creation of such random sequences.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Richter:Generatingconformingtime_2008,
  author = {Richter, F. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Generating conforming time characteristics for stochastic technical processes},
  booktitle = {IEEE 16th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1753 -1756},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2008.4602079}
}
Richter, F. and Sourkounis, C. Precise current sensor for power electronic devices 2008 Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE, pp. 4786 -4789  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Precise current measurements are necessary for the operation of power electronic devices to determine the current state. Today, current sensors based on the Hall effect are used. These current sensors lack a satisfying resolution in the lower part of their measurement range and there are troubles with offsets. When compared to the conventional current sensors, the proposed topology shows the following advantages: a very high resolution over the whole measurement range, reducing offsets to a minimum due to an active offset-compensation by an analog/digital chopper/de-chopper, an excellent suppression of 1/f noise, and an extremely low noise density (35 nV/radic(Hz) ) down to DC. Common current sensors may be replaced with this technology whose output is likewise analog. A further advantage is that there are fewer demands concerning the power supply, as only a single source is required.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Richter:Precisecurrentsensor_2008,
  author = {Richter, F. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Precise current sensor for power electronic devices},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics Specialists Conference, 2008. PESC 2008. IEEE},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {4786 -4789},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PESC.2008.4592729}
}
Richter, F. and Sourkounis, C. Wide range low noise current sensor 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC), pp. 1398 -1401  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Compared to conventional current sensors, the proposed topology is advantageous because of its high resolution throughout its full measurement range, thus reducing offsets to a minimum. This aim is reached through active offset compensation using an analog/digital chopper/de-chopper. A further advantage is the excellent suppression of 1/f noise and a low noise density (35 nV/radicHz) down to the DC-threshold. Common current sensors may be replaced with this technology whose one output is likewise analog. The power supply requirements are also far lower than for standard topologies as only a single supply is needed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Richter:Widerangelow_2008,
  author = {Richter, F. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Wide range low noise current sensor},
  booktitle = {13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1398 -1401},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635463}
}
Richter, F., Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Prediction of stochastically fluctuating values using the example of road surface roughness 2009 IEEE 17th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED), pp. 1009 -1013  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The prediction of stochastically fluctuating values is very interesting for the control of systems with stochastically fluctuating input values. In this paper a prediction method for road surface distortion is presented. If a high prediction quality can be assured, this information can be very useful for the control of a road vehicle's active damping. In the frame of this paper, different prediction methods were introduced and tested for their average prediction error. The most interesting prediction method is the one which is based on short term statistics.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Richter:Predictionofstochastically_2009,
  author = {Richter, F. and Sourkounis, C. and Bingchang Ni},
  title = {Prediction of stochastically fluctuating values using the example of road surface roughness},
  booktitle = {IEEE 17th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1009 -1013},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2009.5164678}
}
Runge, W. and Steimel, A. Some Aspects of the Circuit Design of High-Power GTO Converters 1989 3rd Europ. Conf. on Power Electronics, pp. 1555-1560  inproceedings  
Abstract: In the field of high power converter, e.g. for traction applications, GTO-thyristors with ratings up to 4.5 kV and 2.5 kA are going to be introduced. The circuit design of GTO converters is determined by the snubber circuits which are necessary to release the GTOs from turn-on and turn-off switching losses and to keep the overvoltages caused by GTO switching low.
Two snubber arrangements are discussed: the "RCD" snubber together with the DI/dt limiting chokes and the unsymmetrical "U"snubber with one common snubber capacitor for a pair of GTOs. Concerning the overvoltage due to switching the same equivalent circuit can be derived for both arrangements.
The losses due to the energy stored in the snubber elements are considerably reduced by the U-snubber circuit. The switching losses of high pwower GTOs are rather high; the turn-on losses are reduced by the U-circuit.
The circuit design of the whole inverter and of the arrangement and layout of the DI/dt limiting inductors is discussed. Some measuring results and data of inverters are given.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RungeSteimel:SomeAspectsoftheCircuitDesignofHigh-PowerGTOConverters_1989a,
  author = {Runge, W. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Some Aspects of the Circuit Design of High-Power GTO Converters},
  booktitle = {3rd Europ. Conf. on Power Electronics},
  year = {1989},
  pages = {1555-1560}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Application of Sliding-Mode Control to Drive Systems fed by a Three-Level Voltage-Source Inverter 2008 17th IFAC World Congress, pp. 14241-14246  inproceedings  
Abstract: The paper explains basic ideas related to the design of a sliding-mode controller for an
electromechanic drive system consisting of an induction motor and a three-level voltagesource
inverter. A comprehensive investigation of possible “switched structures” of the drive
was carried out. Based on this analysis an original two-step design procedure allows to use the
“classical” result of sliding-mode theory for the real switched system with more then 2m
switched structures (m is the control space order). The performance of the considered control
structure has been examined by simulation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RyvkinSchmidt-ObermoellerSteimel:ApplicationofSliding-ModeControltoDriveSystemsfedbyaThree-LevelVoltage-SourceInverter_2008,
  author = {Ryvkin, S. and Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Application of Sliding-Mode Control to Drive Systems fed by a Three-Level Voltage-Source Inverter},
  booktitle = {17th IFAC World Congress},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {14241-14246}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Sliding-Mode Approach to Control Design for Induction Motor 2008 13th International Power Electronics and MotionControl Conference EPE-PEMC  inproceedings  
Abstract: A novel sliding mode control for the induction motor (IM) fed by three-level voltage-source
inverter (3LVSI) is proposed in this paper. The "classical" results of sliding-mode theory were
extended on the actual variable structure system with more then 2m variable structures (m is
the control space order) by using an original two-step design procedure that allows separately
to use the nonlinearity of the IM and the switching character of the 3LVSI. The based on this
design procedure original control algorithm that includes a choice condition for 3L-VSI input
dc link voltage and a switch table for the 3L-VSI semiconductor switches is designed. The
main advantages of such approach are given as follows: the control design is simpler and
more graphical; the control system has such advantageous characteristics of the control plant
with sliding mode control as high dynamic, low sensitivity to disturbance of both the load and
the to plant parameter variations; the requirements to the quality of the input dc-link voltage
and as a result to the dc-line filter capacitor are reduced; the measurement precision of the
stator flux position is within (?/6). Simulation results are presented to validate the theoretical
analysis and demonstrate the performance of the proposed control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RyvkinSchmidt-ObermoellerSteimel:Sliding-ModeApproachtoControlDesignforInductionMotor_2008,
  author = {Ryvkin, S. and Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Sliding-Mode Approach to Control Design for Induction Motor},
  booktitle = {13th International Power Electronics and MotionControl Conference EPE-PEMC},
  year = {2008}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Sliding-Mode-Based Control for a Three-Level Inverter Drive 2008 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics *
Vol. 55(11), pp. 3828-3835 
article  
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to spread the sliding-mode control design technique on the new class
of the ac drives: an induction motor fed by a three-level voltage-source inverter (3LVSI). A
comprehensive investigation of possible drive “variable structures” was carried out. Based on
this analysis, an original two-step design procedure allows the use of the “classical” result of
sliding-mode theory for the real variable structure system with more than 2m variable
structures (m is the control space order).
Based on this design procedure, the original control algorithm that includes a choice condition
for 3LVSI input dc voltage and a switch table for the 3LVSI semiconductor switches are
designed. The performance of the considered control structure has been examined by
simulation.
BibTeX:
@article{RyvkinSchmidt-ObermoellerSteimel:Sliding-Mode-BasedControlforaThree-LevelInverterDrive_2008,
  author = {Ryvkin, S. and Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Sliding-Mode-Based Control for a Three-Level Inverter Drive},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics *},
  year = {2008},
  volume = {55},
  number = {11},
  pages = {3828-3835}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Variable structure control technique for an induction motor drive supplied by a three-level voltage source inverter 2008 8th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC '2008), pp. 567-570  inproceedings  
Abstract: We extend current research into sliding mode control of the high-power induction motor
fed by a three-level inverter. Sliding mode control offers high torque dynamic completed with
robust behavior against input voltage disturbance and drive parameter variation. Original
control algorithm based on the sliding mode is proposed and designed. The simulation
confirmed high dynamic accuracy, simplification of the control algorithm.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RyvkinSchmidt-ObermoellerSteimel:Variablestructurecontroltechniqueforaninductionmotordrivesuppliedbyathree-levelvoltagesourceinverter_2008,
  author = {Ryvkin, S. and Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Variable structure control technique for an induction motor drive supplied by a three-level voltage source inverter},
  booktitle = {8th International Carpathian Control Conference (ICCC '2008)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {567-570}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Three-level inverter drive with sliding mode control 2008 11th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM'08), pp. Vol. 3, 25-30  inproceedings  
Abstract: The aim of this paper to spread the sliding mode control design technique on the new class of
the AC drives: an induction motor (IM) fed by three-level voltage-source inverter (3LVSI). A
comprehensive investigation of possible drive “variable structures” was carried out. Based on
this analysis an original two-step design procedure allows using the “classical” result of
sliding-mode theory for the real variable structure system with more then 2m variable
structures (m is the control space order). The based on this design procedure original control
algorithm that includes a choice condition for 3LVSI input DC voltage and a switch table for
the 3LVSI semiconductor switches is designed. The performance of the considered control
structure has been examined by simulation.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{S.Schmidt-ObermoellerA.:Three-levelinverterdrivewithslidingmodecontrol_2008,
  author = {Sergey Ryvkin and Richard Schmidt-Obermoeller and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Three-level inverter drive with sliding mode control},
  booktitle = {11th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM'08)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {Vol. 3, 25-30}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Formal derivation of sliding-mode control for high-power induction-motor drives fed by three-level voltage source inverters 2007 16th International Conference on Electrical Drives and Power Electronics (EDPE 2007)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Sliding-mode control (SMC) is a control technique that has proven successful for inverter-fed induction motor
(IM) drives because it uses the inverter switch mode directly and gives the drive high torque dynamic, together
with robust behavior against input voltage and load disturbances and drive-parameter variations. This paper
presents a formal derivation of SMC for a new class of the nonlinear control plant: IM drives fed by three-level
voltage-source inverters (3LVSI). The derivation elaborates the relationship between SMC performance and IM
and 3LVSI characteristics. It is shown the connection between the two-dimensional voltage space vector of the
well-known two-phase equivalent model of a symmetrical balanced squirrel-cage IM used in control design and
the output switch-voltage vector of 3LVSI. An original control algorithm is designed, based on the proposed
original two-step design procedure. The simulation results demonstrate that the investigated drive with SMC
shows high dynamics, is robust and that SMC itself is simple to implement.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RyvkinSchmidt-ObermoellerSteimel:Formalderivationofsliding-modecontrolforhigh-powerinduction-motordrivesfedbythree-levelvoltagesourceinverters_2007,
  author = {Ryvkin, S. and Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Formal derivation of sliding-mode control for high-power induction-motor drives fed by three-level voltage source inverters},
  booktitle = {16th International Conference on Electrical Drives and Power Electronics (EDPE 2007)},
  year = {2007}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Sliding-Mode Control for a Three-Level Inverter Drive 2007 Proceedings of XVth International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus and Technologies, SIELA, pp. Vol. 1, 158-166  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract. This paper is intended to explain the basic ideas to use the sliding-mode design
technique for control synthesis of a high-power induction motor (IM) drive fed by a threelevel
inverter (3LVSI). The sliding-mode control (SMC) achieves high torque dynamic,
together with robust behavior against input voltage disturbances and drive-parameter
variations. An original control algorithm based on SMC is proposed and designed. The
simulation confirms high dynamics, accuracy and simplification of the control algorithm.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RyvkinSchmidt-ObermoellerSteimel:Sliding-ModeControlforaThree-LevelInverterDrive_2007,
  author = {Ryvkin, S. and Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Sliding-Mode Control for a Three-Level Inverter Drive},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of XVth International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus and Technologies, SIELA},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {Vol. 1, 158-166}
}
Ryvkin, S., Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A. Sliding-mode control technique for an induction motor drive supplied by a three-level voltage-source inverter 2007 PES 07  inproceedings  
Abstract: The possibility of using sliding-mode (SM) technique for an induction motor drive with a new
class of inverters (three-level voltage-source inverter (3LVSI) has been presented. A
designed control, based on the proposed two-step design procedure is discussed; the drive
simulation results are shown.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{RyvkinSchmidt-ObermoellerSteimel:Sliding-modecontroltechniqueforaninductionmotordrivesuppliedbyathree-levelvoltage-sourceinverter_2007,
  author = {Ryvkin, S. and Schmidt-Obermoeller, R. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Sliding-mode control technique for an induction motor drive supplied by a three-level voltage-source inverter},
  booktitle = {PES 07},
  year = {2007}
}
Schmidt-Obermöller, R., Kail, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Improved 200-kW Double Three-Level High-Power Active Front End with a new PC-based Control Hardware 2006 10th OPTIM conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Electric energy has to be drawn from or fed into the utility grid by drives with
appropriately low harmonic distortion (THD). Double three-level IGBT or GTO converters
achieve with very low switching frequency quasi-sinusoidal line currents and are thus
especially suited for highest power levels. An improved Real-Time PC System for a
Multilevel Active Front End (AFE) is presented. The control strategy is based on the concept
of Virtual Flux, derived from Direct Self Control (DSC) for induction machines in fieldweakening
operation. Experimental results are presented and evaluated. Aspects for further
improvement of the converter control are pointed out.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Schmidt-ObermoellerKailStaudtSteimel:Improved200-kWDoubleThree-LevelHigh-PowerActiveFrontEndwithanewPC-basedControlHardware_2006,
  author = {Schmidt-Obermöller, R. and Kail, M. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Improved 200-kW Double Three-Level High-Power Active Front End with a new PC-based Control Hardware},
  booktitle = {10th OPTIM conference},
  year = {2006}
}
Schröder, D. Elektrische Antriebe -- Regelung von Antriebssystemen 2009   inbook  
BibTeX:
@inbook{Schroeder:MODULATIONSVERFAHREN_ElektrischeAntriebe--RegelungvonAntriebssystemen_2009,
  author = {Schröder, D.},
  title = {Elektrische Antriebe -- Regelung von Antriebssystemen},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag, Berlin},
  year = {2009}
}
Schröder, D. Elektrische Antriebe -- Regelung von Antriebssystemen 2001   inbook  
BibTeX:
@inbook{Steimel:ElektrischeAntriebe2Regelungen_2001,
  author = {Schröder, D.},
  title = {Elektrische Antriebe -- Regelung von Antriebssystemen},
  publisher = {Springer-Verlag, Berlin},
  year = {2001}
}
Sonnenschein, M. and Staudt, V. Evaluation of a Shunt Active Filter Using Frequency Identification 1998 8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VIII), pp. 617-622  inproceedings  
Abstract: In general every electrical consumer connected to a power distribution network - be it single-phase, three-phase, a.c. or d.c. - should be supplied by a voltage quality that allows him to perform his functions without any disturbances caused by the supplying network. On the other hand the consumer should reduce the system perturbations produced by himself so far that no other consumers or installations are disturbed. This holds true for utility grids as well as for railway power supply. Nowadays consumers connected to utility grids as well as railway power supplies often cause undesired oscillations. The frequencies of these oscillations may be integral multiples of the base frequency (so-called harmonics), but often they are not (so-called interharmonics). If quantities of such loads are to be analysed in the frequency domain, for example to evaluate the advantages and disturbances caused by an active filter, interharmonics cause problems. This paper evaluates a shunt active filter using a frequency identification method, which in many cases solves the analysis problems caused by interharmonics.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SonnenscheinStaudt:Evaluationofashuntactivefilterusingfrequencyidentification_1998,
  author = {Sonnenschein, M. and Staudt, V.},
  title = {Evaluation of a Shunt Active Filter Using Frequency Identification},
  booktitle = {8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VIII)},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {617-622}
}
Sourkounis, C. PID-State Torque Control in Electromechanical Drive Systems Under Stochastic Load 2012 Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on
Vol. 48(1), pp. 20 -27 
article DOI  
Abstract: Many technical processes with stochastic workflow are characterized by high load peaks. Those load peaks propagate in the power train of the electromechanical drive system to the feeding power grid and at the same time stimulate torsion oscillations. For smoothing the load peaks as well as damping the torque oscillations, a novel torque control was designed. The concept consists of a PID-state control and was compared to standard control methods such as standard PID control. The PID-state control shows distinctive advantages with respect to the reference-variable response and the manipulated variable requirement.
BibTeX:
@article{Sourkounis:PID-StateTorqueControl_2012,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {PID-State Torque Control in Electromechanical Drive Systems Under Stochastic Load},
  journal = {Industry Applications, IEEE Transactions on},
  year = {2012},
  volume = {48},
  number = {1},
  pages = {20 -27},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2011.2175878}
}
Sourkounis, C. Basic control concept for a speed-variable wind energy converter in a low-power grid 2012 Control Automation (MED), 2012 20th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 1296 -1302  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In order to achieve an high penetration in the electrical grid and an economical utilization of wind energy earlier it is advisable to reduce the pollution on the one hand and to increase the efficiency of wind energy converters on the other. Therefore a new generator system control was design and tested on a 22 kW wind energy converter test bed. The basic control concept is characterised by sufficiently high control dynamics. Besides sufficiently high control reserves for an operation within a broad speed range and high control dynamics, a stable operation over the whole speed range has been obtained.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis2012,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Basic control concept for a speed-variable wind energy converter in a low-power grid},
  booktitle = {Control Automation (MED), 2012 20th Mediterranean Conference on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {1296 -1302},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2012.6265818}
}
Sourkounis, C. Active dynamic damping of torsional vibrations by H$ -Control 2010 12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM), pp. 716 -723  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: For wind energy conversion process, high load peaks result from the stochastic fluctuation of the wind. Those load peaks propagate in the power train of the electro mechanical drive system to the power grid and at the same time excite torsion oscillations. For smoothing the load peaks as well as damping the torque oscillations a novel torque control was designed. The new torque control is based on the H #x221E;-Control and was compared to standard control methods such as PID control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Activedynamicdamping_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Active dynamic damping of torsional vibrations by H$ -Control},
  booktitle = {12th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {716 -723},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/OPTIM.2010.5510354}
}
Sourkounis, C. PID-state control with restricted structure for electromechanical drive train 2010 36th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 1926 -1931  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Numerous technical processes with stochastic workflow, such as the shredder process, show high load peaks. Those load peaks propagate in the power train of the electromechanical drive system to the feeding power grid and at the same time excite torsional oscillations. For smoothing the load peaks as well as damping the torque oscillations a novel torque control was designed. The concept consists of a PID-state control and was compared to standard control methods such as standard PID control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:PID-statecontrolwith_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {PID-state control with restricted structure for electromechanical drive train},
  booktitle = {36th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1926 -1931},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2010.5675348}
}
Sourkounis, C. PID-State Torque Control in Electromechanical Drive Systems under Stochastic Load 2010 Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), 2010 IEEE, pp. 1 -5  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: For numerous technical processes, high load peaks result from the stochastic workflow. Those load peaks propagate in the power train of the electromechanical drive system to the feeding power grid and at the same time stimulate torsion oscillations. For smoothing the load peaks as well as damping the torque oscillations a novel torque control was designed. The concept consists of a PID-state control and was compared to standard control methods such as standard PID control. The PID state control shows distinctive advantages with respect to the reference-variable response and the manipulated variable requirement.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:PID-StateTorqueControl_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {PID-State Torque Control in Electromechanical Drive Systems under Stochastic Load},
  booktitle = {Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting (IAS), 2010 IEEE},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1 -5},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2010.5615735}
}
Sourkounis, C. Regelstrukturen zur Torsionsschwingungs- und Lastspitzendämpfung im Antriebsstrang von Windenergiekonvertern 2010 VDI-Fachtagung "Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen"  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:RegelstrukturenzurTorsionsschwingungs-undLastspitzendaempfungimAntriebsstrangvonWindenergiekonvertern_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Regelstrukturen zur Torsionsschwingungs- und Lastspitzendämpfung im Antriebsstrang von Windenergiekonvertern},
  booktitle = {VDI-Fachtagung "Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen"},
  year = {2010}
}
Sourkounis, C. Active Minimisation of Cumulated Load in the Drive Train by Dynamic Speed Flexible Operation 2009 Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review)
Vol. 85(10) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Sourkounis:ActiveMinimisationofCumulatedLoadintheDriveTrainbyDynamicSpeedFlexibleOperation_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Active Minimisation of Cumulated Load in the Drive Train by Dynamic Speed Flexible Operation},
  journal = {Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review)},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {85},
  number = {10}
}
Sourkounis, C. Dynamic torque control in electromechanical drive train with PID-state control 2009 IEEE 17th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED), pp. 1504 -1510  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: For numerous technical processes, high load peaks result from the stochastic workflow. Those load peaks propagate in the power train of the electromechanical drive system to the feeding power grid and at the same time stimulate torsion oscillations. For smoothing the load peaks as well as damping the torque oscillations a novel torque control was designed. The concept consists of a PID-state control and was compared to standard control methods such as standard PID control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Dynamictorquecontrol_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Dynamic torque control in electromechanical drive train with PID-state control},
  booktitle = {IEEE 17th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1504 -1510},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2009.5164760}
}
Sourkounis, C. H$-control algorithm for dynamic damping of torsional vibrations in mechatronical drive systems 2009 35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 5567 -5573  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: For numerous technical processes, high load peaks result from the stochastic workflow. Those load peaks propagate in the power train of the electro mechanical drive system to the feeding power grid and at the same time stimulate torsion oscillations. For smoothing the load peaks as well as damping the torque oscillations a novel torque control was designed. The new torque control is based on the H #x0221E;-Control and was compared to standard control methods such as PID control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Hx221E;-controlalgorithm_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {H$-control algorithm for dynamic damping of torsional vibrations in mechatronical drive systems},
  booktitle = {35th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {5567 -5573},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2009.5414733}
}
Sourkounis, C. S-curve-control for active load peak damping in the drive train 2009 IEEE 6th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), pp. 337 -342  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Comminuting processes cause stochastic loads with high amplitudes in the electromechanical drive train. In the long run, peak loads cause premature material fatigue of the drive components alongside high thermal loads in the asynchronous machine. Furthermore load peaks arise in the supply grid, which leads to higher overheads (demand charge). A new drive train with a novel non-linear speed control (SC-control) was developed based on the operating performance of commercial comminuting units (e.g. shredding plants), according to the specifications of higher throughput, damping the load peaks arising from the comminuting process and thus also, lowering the voltage fluctuations in the electrical grid. A non-linear SC-control was designed and tested. By this a rotational speed flexible operation of the shredding drive system was realised, so that the rotating masses' kinetic energy is used to smooth the load peak from the process. In this way it was possible to reduce the cumulative load in the drive train, instantaneously achieving high process performance.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:S-curve-controlactiveload_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {S-curve-control for active load peak damping in the drive train},
  booktitle = {IEEE 6th International Conference-Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {337 -342},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2009.5156056}
}
Sourkounis, C. Storage systems design approach for power conditioning in wind parks 2009 Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on, pp. 1 -8  inproceedings  
Abstract: For technical and economical reasons, the stochastic fluctuation of wind energy density significantly limits the amount of feedable energy from wind energy converters in regions with good wind conditions. From the technical point of view the fluctuating energy offer from the wind reduces the energy quality in electrical grids. This results in voltage and frequency variations in isolated grids. Depending on the installed wind energy converter undesired high harmonics are spread throughout the connected grid. The attenuation of the mains pollution from wind energy converters or wind parks are of essential importance for a wide spread utilization of wind energy, so that it can noteworthy contribute to the energy supply. An obvious approach is the installation of dynamic energy storage systems. Thereby short term wind caused power fluctuations as well as load changes can be absorbed or smoothed on location. The necessary storage capacity is calculated by the frequency distribution of the wind gusts energy content.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Storagesystemsdesign_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Storage systems design approach for power conditioning in wind parks},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics and Applications, 2009. EPE '09. 13th European Conference on},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {1 -8}
}
Sourkounis, C. Design Approaches for Power Conditioning in Wind Parks by Dynamic Storage Systems 2008 International Workshop on Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South-Eastern Europe  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:DesignApproachesforPowerConditioninginWindParksbyDynamicStorageSystems_2008,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Design Approaches for Power Conditioning in Wind Parks by Dynamic Storage Systems},
  booktitle = {International Workshop on Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South-Eastern Europe},
  year = {2008}
}
Sourkounis, C. Drehzahlelastisches Antriebssystem mit begrenztem Drehzahlstellbereich zur aktiven Dämpfung von Lastspitzen bei Zerkleinerungsprozessen 2008 VDE/VDI-Fachtagung "Elektrisch-mechanische Antriebssysteme"  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:DrehzahlelastischesAntriebssystemmitbegrenztemDrehzahlstellbereichzuraktivenDaempfungvonLastspitzenbeiZerkleinerungsprozessen_2008,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Drehzahlelastisches Antriebssystem mit begrenztem Drehzahlstellbereich zur aktiven Dämpfung von Lastspitzen bei Zerkleinerungsprozessen},
  booktitle = {VDE/VDI-Fachtagung "Elektrisch-mechanische Antriebssysteme"},
  year = {2008}
}
Sourkounis, C. Dynamical torque-speed-curve adaption to damp load peaks occuring in drive trains of shredding plants 2008 13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC), pp. 1633 -1637  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Comminuting processes, which provide the required mechanical power for the process cause stochastical loads with high amplitudes in the electromechanical drive train. In the long run, peak loads cause premature material fatigue of the drive components alongside high thermal loads in the asynchronous machine. A new drive train with a novel non-linear speed control was developed based on the operating performance of commercial comminuting units. The non-linear speed control realises a rotational speed-flexible operation so that the rotating masses' kinetic energy is used to smooth the load peaks from the process. In this way, it was possible to reduce the cumulative load in the drive train achieving high process performance.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Dynamicaltorque-speed-curveadaption_2008,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Dynamical torque-speed-curve adaption to damp load peaks occuring in drive trains of shredding plants},
  booktitle = {13th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1633 -1637},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635501}
}
Sourkounis, C. Dynamic speed flexible drive system for shredder-plants with highly restricted control range 2008 34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON), pp. 1161 -1166  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Shredder drives, which provide the required mechanical power for the shredding process, are affected by stochastical loads with high amplitudes in the electromechanical drive train. In the long run, peak loads causes premature material fatigue of the drive components alongside high thermal loads in the asynchronous machine. A new drive train with a novel non-linear speed control was developed based on the operating performance of commercial shredder plants. The non-linear speed. control realises a rotational speed-flexible operation so that the rotating masses' kinetic energy is used to smooth the load peaks from the process. In this way it was possible to reduce the cumulative load in the drive train, achieving high process performance.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Dynamicspeedflexible_2008,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Dynamic speed flexible drive system for shredder-plants with highly restricted control range},
  booktitle = {34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1161 -1166},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2008.4758118}
}
Sourkounis, C. Electromechanical Power Generator Systems for Large-Scale Speed Variable Wind Energy Converters 2008 6th Mediterranean Conference on Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution (MedPower)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:ElectromechanicalPowerGeneratorSystemsforLarge-ScaleSpeedVariableWindEnergyConverters_2008,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Electromechanical Power Generator Systems for Large-Scale Speed Variable Wind Energy Converters},
  booktitle = {6th Mediterranean Conference on Power Generation, Transmission and Distribution (MedPower)},
  year = {2008}
}
Sourkounis, C. S-Kennlinien-Regler zur Lastkollektivminimierung im Antriebssstrang 2007 Antriebs(11)  article  
BibTeX:
@article{Sourkounis:S-Kennlinien-ReglerzurLastkollektivminimierungimAntriebssstrang_2007,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {S-Kennlinien-Regler zur Lastkollektivminimierung im Antriebssstrang},
  journal = {Antriebs},
  year = {2007},
  number = {11}
}
Sourkounis, C. Nicht-lineare S-Kennlinien-Regelung zur Dämpfung prozessbedingter Drehmomentspitzen und -schwingungen im Antriebsstrang 2006 VDI-Schwingungstagung  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Nicht-lineareS-Kennlinien-RegelungzurDaempfungprozessbedingterDrehmomentspitzenund-schwingungenimAntriebsstrang_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Nicht-lineare S-Kennlinien-Regelung zur Dämpfung prozessbedingter Drehmomentspitzen und -schwingungen im Antriebsstrang},
  booktitle = {VDI-Schwingungstagung},
  year = {2006}
}
Sourkounis, C. Patent: Verfahren und Regeleinrichtung zum Regeln eines Antriebssystems unter stochastischen Belastungen 2006 (DE 10 2004 061 436 A1 Verfahren und Regeleinrichtung zum Regeln eines Antriebssystems unter stochastischen Belastungen)  patent  
BibTeX:
@patent{Sourkounis:Patent:Verfahrenund_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Patent: Verfahren und Regeleinrichtung zum Regeln eines Antriebssystems unter stochastischen Belastungen},
  year = {2006},
  number = {DE 10 2004 061 436 A1
Verfahren und Regeleinrichtung zum Regeln eines Antriebssystems unter stochastischen Belastungen} }
Sourkounis, C. Drehzahlelastische Antriebssysteme unter stochastischen Belastungen 2004 School: TU Clausthal  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Sourkounis:DrehzahlelastischeAntriebssystemeunterstochastischenBelastungen_2004,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Drehzahlelastische Antriebssysteme unter stochastischen Belastungen},
  school = {TU Clausthal},
  year = {2004}
}
Sourkounis, C. Optimale Regelstrukturen zur Lastkollektivminimierung im Antriebsstrang von Windkraftanlagen 2002 6th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:OptimaleRegelstrukturenzurLastkollektivminimierungimAntriebsstrangvonWindkraftanlagen_2002,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Optimale Regelstrukturen zur Lastkollektivminimierung im Antriebsstrang von Windkraftanlagen},
  booktitle = {6th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK},
  year = {2002}
}
Sourkounis, C. Automatisierungsstruktur in dezentralen Energieversorgungssystemen mit stochastisch flukturierendem Energieangebot 2001 atp-Automatisierungstechnische Praxis
atp-Sonderausgabe(11) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Sou:AutomatisierungsstrukturindezentralenEnergieversorgungssystemenmitstochastischflukturierendemEnergieangebot_2001,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Automatisierungsstruktur in dezentralen Energieversorgungssystemen mit stochastisch flukturierendem Energieangebot},
  journal = {atp-Automatisierungstechnische Praxis
atp-Sonderausgabe}, year = {2001}, number = {11} }
Sourkounis, C. Stochastische Optimierung von Regelstrukturen zur Lastkollektivminimierung im Antriebsstrang von Windkraftanlagen 2001 Antriebstechnisches Kolloqium ATK  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:StochastischeOptimierungvonRegelstrukturenzurLastkollektivminimierungimAntriebsstrangvonWindkraftanlagen_2001,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Stochastische Optimierung von Regelstrukturen zur Lastkollektivminimierung im Antriebsstrang von Windkraftanlagen},
  booktitle = {Antriebstechnisches Kolloqium ATK},
  year = {2001}
}
Sourkounis, C. Selbsteinstellende Betriebsführung für ein optimales Standortleistungsprofil bei Windkraftanlagen 2000 5th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK, pp. 21-27  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:SelbsteinstellendeBetriebsfuehrungfuereinoptimalesStandortleistungsprofilbeiWindkraftanlagen_2000,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Selbsteinstellende Betriebsführung für ein optimales Standortleistungsprofil bei Windkraftanlagen},
  booktitle = {5th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {21-27}
}
Sourkounis, C. Windenergiekonverter mit maximaler Energieausbeute am leistungsschwachen Netz 1994 School: TU Clausthal  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Sourkounis:WindenergiekonvertermitmaximalerEnergieausbeuteamleistungsschwachenNetz_1994,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Windenergiekonverter mit maximaler Energieausbeute am leistungsschwachen Netz},
  school = {TU Clausthal},
  year = {1994}
}
Sourkounis, C. Patent: Autonomes, modulares Energieversorgungssystem für Inselnetze 1992 (P 42 32 516.1-34)  patent  
BibTeX:
@patent{Sourkounis:Patent:Autonomesmodulares_1992,
  author = {Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Patent: Autonomes, modulares Energieversorgungssystem für Inselnetze},
  year = {1992},
  number = {P 42 32 516.1-34}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Al-Diab, A. A comprehensive analysis and comparison between Multilevel Space-Vector Modulation and Multilevel Carrier-Based PWM 2008 13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC), pp. 1710 -1715  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: This paper presents an analysis and a comparison of multilevel three-phase inverters based PWM modulators. Two different PWM strategies are used to turn on and off the switching devices, multilevel space vector modulation and multilevel carrier based modulation. The performance characteristics regarding the harmonic contents, switching losses and conduction losses have been computed. These characteristics have been determined for a 10 KW three-level diode-clamped inverter supplying a 230 V, 11 A, 4% Inductive inner impedance of the grid through a simulation program to validate the proposed approaches.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:comprehensiveanalysisand_2008,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Al-Diab, A.},
  title = {A comprehensive analysis and comparison between Multilevel Space-Vector Modulation and Multilevel Carrier-Based PWM},
  booktitle = {13th Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1710 -1715},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2008.4635513}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. Electromechanical Power Converter Systems for 5MW-Off-Shore Wind Energy Converters 2003 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisBeck:ElectromechanicalPowerConverterSystemsfor5MW-Off-ShoreWindEnergyConverters_2003,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Electromechanical Power Converter Systems for 5MW-Off-Shore Wind Energy Converters},
  booktitle = {European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  year = {2003}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. Shredder-Lastminimierte energiesparende Shredderantriebe 1996 Kolloqium, Berichte zu Ergebnissen des Sonderforschungsbereichs 180, Kolloqium  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SoukounisBeck:Shredder-LastminimierteenergiesparendeShredderantriebe_1996,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Shredder-Lastminimierte energiesparende Shredderantriebe},
  booktitle = {Kolloqium, Berichte zu Ergebnissen des Sonderforschungsbereichs 180, Kolloqium},
  year = {1996}
}
Sourkounis, C., Beck, H.-P. and Wenske, J. Gesamtkonzept zur Konditionierung elektrischer Energie aus fluktuierenden Quellen in dezentralen Netzen am Beispiel der Windenergie 1998 4th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK, Tagungsband, pp. 182-186  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisBeckWenske:GesamtkonzeptzurKonditionierungelektrischerEnergieausfluktuierendenQuellenindezentralenNetzenamBeispielderWindenergie_1998,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Gesamtkonzept zur Konditionierung elektrischer Energie aus fluktuierenden Quellen in dezentralen Netzen am Beispiel der Windenergie},
  booktitle = {4th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK, Tagungsband},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {182-186}
}
Sourkounis, C., Beck, H.-P., Zenner, H. and Peter, F. Drehzahlelastische Antriebe zur Lastminimierung bei Shredderanlagen 1996 VDI-Schwingungstagung, VDI-Bericht 1285  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisBeckZennerPeter:DrehzahlelastischeAntriebezurLastminimierungbeiShredderanlagen_1996,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. and Zenner, H. and Peter, F.},
  title = {Drehzahlelastische Antriebe zur Lastminimierung bei Shredderanlagen},
  booktitle = {VDI-Schwingungstagung, VDI-Bericht 1285},
  year = {1996}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Bekehermes, M. Iterativ adaptierende Betriebsführung für drehzahlvariable Windenergiekonverter 2000 atp-Automatisierungstechnische Praxis(3)  article  
BibTeX:
@article{SourkounisBekehermes:IterativadaptierendeBetriebsfuehrungfuerdrehzahlvariableWindenergiekonverter_2000,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Bekehermes, M.},
  title = {Iterativ adaptierende Betriebsführung für drehzahlvariable Windenergiekonverter},
  journal = {atp-Automatisierungstechnische Praxis},
  year = {2000},
  number = {3}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A. Dynamische Antriebsstrangsstrukturen von Windenergiekonvertern zur aktiven Schwingungsdämpfung 2012 3. VDI-Fachtagung Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisBroy:DynamischeAntriebsstrangsstrukturenvonWindenergiekonverternzuraktivenSchwingungsdaempfung_2012,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A.},
  title = {Dynamische Antriebsstrangsstrukturen von Windenergiekonvertern zur aktiven Schwingungsdämpfung},
  booktitle = {3. VDI-Fachtagung Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen},
  year = {2012}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A. Dynamical operational behavior of the power drain of wind energy converters with PMSM considering different current control methods 2011 Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop, pp. 208 -213  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: With increasing nominal wind park power, interest in the operating behavior of the plants and the wind park is developing. Main criteria for the quality of the operating behavior are based on mains pollution (e.g. harmonics) and the power fluctuation through variations of the wind speed. The dynamic and stationary operating behavior of wind energy converters (WEC) are defined by the drive train structure and the control algorithm. The essence of this paper is the investigation on the operating behaviors of different WECs generator systems in relation to their influence on the mechanical drive train's operating performance. Because of practical experiences so far, only a few concepts are suitable for the design of the electrical part. Therefore, in this paper, a theoretical and simulation based comparison will be carried out. Five different concepts (some state-of-the-art and some new creations especially for off-shore use) therefore, are compared in relation to necessary requirements.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Dynamicaloperationalbehavior_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A.},
  title = {Dynamical operational behavior of the power drain of wind energy converters with PMSM considering different current control methods},
  booktitle = {Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {208 -213},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2011.5942233}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A. Influence of the Generator Side Rectifier and the DC-Link-Converters Topology and their Control Method on the Drive Train of Wind Energy Converters with PMSM 2011 IEEE 19th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED)  inproceedings  
Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A. Nutzung des Energieumwandlungsstrangs von getriebelosen Windenergieanlagen mit permanenterregtem Synchrongenerator zur aktiven Dämpfung von Blattschwingungen 2011 VDI-Fachtagung - Schwingungsdämpfung  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisBroy:NutzungdesEnergieumwandlungsstrangsvongetriebelosenWindenergieanlagenmitpermanenterregtemSynchrongeneratorzuraktivenDaempfungvonBlattschwingungen_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A.},
  title = {Nutzung des Energieumwandlungsstrangs von getriebelosen Windenergieanlagen mit permanenterregtem Synchrongenerator zur aktiven Dämpfung von Blattschwingungen},
  booktitle = {VDI-Fachtagung - Schwingungsdämpfung},
  year = {2011}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A. Charging capacities for electric vehicles in urban distribution grids 2010 International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisBroy:Chargingcapacitiesforelectricvehiclesinurbandistributiongrids_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A.},
  title = {Charging capacities for electric vehicles in urban distribution grids},
  booktitle = {International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)},
  year = {2010}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A. Integration von Hochleistungsladestationen für Elektrofahrzeuge in Niederspannungsversorgungsnetzen 2010 VDE-Kongress  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisBroy:IntegrationvonHochleistungsladestationenfuerElektrofahrzeugeinNiederspannungsversorgungsnetze_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Broy, A.},
  title = {Integration von Hochleistungsladestationen für Elektrofahrzeuge in Niederspannungsversorgungsnetzen},
  booktitle = {VDE-Kongress},
  year = {2010}
}
Sourkounis, C., Broy, A. and Ni, B. High power charging of electric vehicles in distribution grids 2010 Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower), 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on, pp. 1 -6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The currently ongoing discussion about large scale increase of electro mobility supposes a high acceptance of electrical vehicles by the public. To achieve a high acceptance, beyond the ecological aspects, the availability and the short-term flexibility of use are of essential importance. Quick charging leads directly to numerous technical questions regarding the integration of high power charging stations in rural areas. Dynamic reactive power compensation and a short term on demand active power supply on site can be an appropriate approach to realise high power charging with adequate technical efforts. The investigation results of these approaches for intelligent integration of high power charging stations in distribution grids will be discussed. Furthermore, the mains pollution by harmonics will be examined and discussed in the scope of a detailed investigation of the battery charger.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Highpowercharging_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, Constantinos and Broy, Alexander and Ni, Bingchang},
  title = {High power charging of electric vehicles in distribution grids},
  booktitle = {Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower), 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1 -6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1049/cp.2010.0875}
}
Sourkounis, C., Broy, A. and Ni, B. Influence of dc-link converter on operational performance of the power conversion train of wind energy converters with PMSM 2010 Power Generation, Transmission, Distribution and Energy Conversion (MedPower), 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on, pp. 1 -7  inproceedings DOI  
Sourkounis, C. and Dost, P. Influence to the electrical and mechanical sub system due to inverter control processes on a power train of electric vehicles 2011 Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG), International Conference on, pp. 1 -6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: As electrical energy depicts itself as a future-orientated strategy for drives used in passenger cars, it is necessary to consider the conditioning of electrical energy to be used for electrical machines. The high frequent influence to the whole power train is evaluated with a view to the electrical and mechanical components. This influence is determined in reference to a comparison between a symmetric pulse wide modulation and a stator orientated hysteretic control (bang-bang-control). As electrical drives for electric vehicles need to have a wide speed range and likewise be robust the chosen control processes are checked out by using a permanent magnetic synchronous machine (PMSM) [1, 2, 3, 4]. This also offers the opportunity of a gearless drive which by the way offers a big advantage in comparison to combustion engines. For best comparison settings the energy source is realized by an ideal voltage source. To connect these components there is an inverter which builds up three-phases and likewise a rectifier in the opposed direction with a set of IGBTs and integrated antiparallel diodes. The command signal is set by the same conditions as in an traditional car by the torque demand of the acceleration pedal.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Influencetoelectrical_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Dost, P.},
  title = {Influence to the electrical and mechanical sub system due to inverter control processes on a power train of electric vehicles},
  booktitle = {Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG), International Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1 -6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PowerEng.2011.6036443}
}
Sourkounis, C., Dragosch, S., Lutgen, R. and Kolonko, M. Statical Methods for the Assessment and Detection of Failures of Wind Turbines within a Wind Plant 2004 7th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisDragoschLutgenKolonko:StaticalMethodsfortheAssessmentandDetectionofFailuresofWindTurbineswithinaWindPlant_2004,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Dragosch, S. and Lutgen, R. and Kolonko, M.},
  title = {Statical Methods for the Assessment and Detection of Failures of Wind Turbines within a Wind Plant},
  booktitle = {7th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK},
  year = {2004}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Einwächter, F. Smart charge management of electric vehicles in decentralized power supply systems 2011 Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on, pp. 1 -6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In the world wide discussion on reducing CO2 emissions, the utilization of electric vehicles is considered to be a reasonable approach. But an essential contribution to CO2 reduction can only be reached by integrating the vehicles into the electrical grid as controlled loads. Demand side management allows scheduling the charging process so that vehicle accumulators are charged during time periods of high regenerative power supply or low grid load. By this means the electric vehicles can be largely supplied by CO2 free energy sources and the utilization of the power supply infrastructure can be improved. Additional investment in the replacement reserve and the expansion of the grid transmission capacity can be avoided, especially in urban areas. This contribution will introduce different concepts for the integration of electric vehicles into the electrical grid, which allow a large utilization of stochastically fluctuating regenerative energy sources. Furthermore, incentive concepts for influencing the behavior of vehicle users, in order to create a temporal correlation between the charging time of the vehicle and the availability of power from regenerative sources, will be introduced and their effects discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Smartchargemanagement_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Einwächter, F.},
  title = {Smart charge management of electric vehicles in decentralized power supply systems},
  booktitle = {Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1 -6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPQU.2011.6128863}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Einwächter, F. Large Scale integration of electric cars in decentralised power supply systems 2009 6th Conference on the promotion of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources in the Mediterranean region (DISTRES)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:LargeScaleintegrationofelectriccarsindecentralisedpowersupplysystems_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Einwächter, F.},
  title = {Large Scale integration of electric cars in decentralised power supply systems},
  booktitle = {6th Conference on the promotion of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources in the Mediterranean region (DISTRES)},
  year = {2009}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Heusler-Sourkounis, B. Optimal design of decentralised power supply systems with high share of stochastic fluctuating renewable energies 2009 6th Conference on the promotion of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources in the Mediterranean region (DISTRES)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisHeusler-Sourkounis:Optimaldesignofdecentralisedpowersupplysystemswithhighshareofstochasticfluctuatingrenewableenergies_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Heusler-Sourkounis, B.},
  title = {Optimal design of decentralised power supply systems with high share of stochastic fluctuating renewable energies},
  booktitle = {6th Conference on the promotion of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources in the Mediterranean region (DISTRES)},
  year = {2009}
}
Sourkounis, C., Heusler-Sourkounis, B. and Koppe, J. Software to Design Autonomous Power Supply Systems Based on Renewable Energies with a Mathematic Optimisation Algorithm Tool 2006 European Wind Energy Conference - EWEC  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisHeusler-SourkounisKoppe:SoftwaretoDesignAutonomousPowerSupplySystemsBasedonRenewableEnergieswithaMathematicOptimisationAlgorithmTool_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Heusler-Sourkounis, B. and Koppe, J.},
  title = {Software to Design Autonomous Power Supply Systems Based on Renewable Energies with a Mathematic Optimisation Algorithm Tool},
  booktitle = {European Wind Energy Conference - EWEC},
  year = {2006}
}
Sourkounis, C., Kanakis, A. and Lemogo-Kana, C. System Management of a Wind Energy Converter to Control a Wind Specific Power Fluctuation 2002 European Transactions on Electrical Power (ETEP)
Vol. 12(6) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SourkounisKanakisLemogo-Kana:SystemManagementofaWindEnergyConvertertoControlaWindSpecificPowerFluctuation_2002,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Kanakis, A. and Lemogo-Kana, Ch.},
  title = {System Management of a Wind Energy Converter to Control a Wind Specific Power Fluctuation},
  journal = {European Transactions on Electrical Power (ETEP)},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {12},
  number = {6}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Wind Power 2010
Vol. 1, pp. 141-164 
inbook  
BibTeX:
@inbook{Sourkounis:WindPower_2010,
  author = {Constantinos Sourkounis and Bingchang Ni},
  title = {Wind Power},
  publisher = {Intech, ISBN 978-953-7619-81-7},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {1},
  pages = {141-164}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Pollution of the grid by high power charging of electric vehicles 2010 International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisNi:Pollutionofthegridbyhighpowerchargingofelectricvehicles_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Pollution of the grid by high power charging of electric vehicles},
  booktitle = {International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)},
  year = {2010}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Dynamische Speichersysteme zur Konditionierung der Leistungsgradienten in Windparks 2009 VDI-Fachtagung "Elektrische Energiespeicher"  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisNi:DynamischeSpeichersystemezurKonditionierungderLeistungsgradienteninWindparks_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Dynamische Speichersysteme zur Konditionierung der Leistungsgradienten in Windparks},
  booktitle = {VDI-Fachtagung "Elektrische Energiespeicher"},
  year = {2009}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Stochastic Dynamic Optimization for the Wind Power Conversion Process 2009 Fourth International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisNi:StochasticDynamicOptimizationfortheWindPowerConversionProcess_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Stochastic Dynamic Optimization for the Wind Power Conversion Process},
  booktitle = {Fourth International Conference and Exhibition on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER)},
  year = {2009}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Stochastic dynamic optimisation with infinite time horizon for variable speed wind energy converters 2007 IEEE 15th Mediterranean Conference on Control Automation (MED), pp. 1 -6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A variable speed wind energy converter operation control system based on stochastic dynamic optimisation was developed. The task of this control system is to set the appliance to the optimal operation point. Here the convergence and the computation power demand are vital for the accurate operation of the control. This nonlinear optimisation structure was adapted for real time control operation with infinite time horizon. By applying the principle of optimality and establishing a quasi-stationary control structure in tabular form this task was accomplished.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Stochasticdynamicoptimisation_2007,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Stochastic dynamic optimisation with infinite time horizon for variable speed wind energy converters},
  booktitle = {IEEE 15th Mediterranean Conference on Control Automation (MED)},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {1 -6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2007.4433800}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Self-Learning Operation Management for Variable Speed Wind Energy Converters 2007 International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisNi:Self-LearningOperationManagementforVariableSpeedWindEnergyConverters_2007,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Self-Learning Operation Management for Variable Speed Wind Energy Converters},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ},
  year = {2007}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Drive Train Control for Wind Energy Converters Based on Stochastic Dynamic Optmisation 2006 IEEE Industrial Electronics (IECON) - 32nd Annual Conference on, pp. 4701 -4706  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A drive train control procedure for variable speed wind power converters, which minimises electric power fluctuations and mechanical peak loads in the drive train at maximum energy yield was developed. These aims are achieved by iterative adapting control based on stochastic dynamic optimisation. The results of the new control methods are compared to conventional control methods
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:DriveTrainControl_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Bingchang Ni},
  title = {Drive Train Control for Wind Energy Converters Based on Stochastic Dynamic Optmisation},
  booktitle = {IEEE Industrial Electronics (IECON) - 32nd Annual Conference on},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {4701 -4706},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2006.347373}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Iterative Adapting Power Control for Wind Energy Converters Based on Stochastic Optimization 2006 Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, 2006. PMAPS 2006. International Conference on, pp. 1 -6  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: A power control procedure for variable speed wind power converters is developed, which minimizes electric power fluctuation at maximum energy yield. These aims are achieved on base of iterative adapting control algorithms that constantly updates the frequency distribution of the measured wind speed and the mean value of the DC-link voltage. The results of the new control methods are compared to conventional control methods
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:IterativeAdaptingPower_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Iterative Adapting Power Control for Wind Energy Converters Based on Stochastic Optimization},
  booktitle = {Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, 2006. PMAPS 2006. International Conference on},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {1 -6},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PMAPS.2006.360241}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Iterative Adapting Power Control for Wind Energy Converters Based on Stochastic Optimization 2006 Probalistic Methods Applied to Power Systems - PMAPS  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisNi:IterativeAdaptingPowerControlforWindEnergyConvertersBasedonStochasticOptimization_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Iterative Adapting Power Control for Wind Energy Converters Based on Stochastic Optimization},
  booktitle = {Probalistic Methods Applied to Power Systems - PMAPS},
  year = {2006}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. Optimal control structure to reduce the cumulative load in the drive train of wind energy converters 2005 European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE), pp. 11 pp. -P.11  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In principle the variable speed wind energy converters offer the technical possibilities to reduce the cumulative load in the drive train and the influence on the electrical grid. The short time wind power fluctuations on the wind rotor can be smoothed by utilisation of rotating masses as storage of kinetic energy. This requires a special designed automatic control and system management, which minimises electric power fluctuation at maximum energy yield. Based on the named goals, a new control approach has been conceived. These aims are achieved on base of stochastic dynamic optimisation algorithms. The new control approach considers the dynamic of the actual wind speed on the given location via a weight function on one hand and produces a direct action on the cumulative load for the plant's drive train and the time dependent run of the electrical power output curve by the formulation of quality functions on the other hand. The approach was tested with help of simulation and test plant, in which a variable speed wind energy converter with the nominal power of 22 kVA is modulated under consideration of the separate system part's non-linear nature. The results of the new control approach are compared to conventional control methods
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Optimalcontrolstructure_2005,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Bingchang Ni},
  title = {Optimal control structure to reduce the cumulative load in the drive train of wind energy converters},
  booktitle = {European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE)},
  year = {2005},
  pages = {11 pp. -P.11},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPE.2005.219495}
}
Sourkounis, C., Ni, B. and Broy, A. Pollution of high power charging electric vehicles in urban distribution grids 2011 Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop, pp. 34 -39  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The currently ongoing discussion about large scale increase of electro mobility supposes a high acceptance of electrical vehicles by the public. To achieve a high acceptance, beyond the ecological aspects, the availability and the short-term flexibility of use are of essential importance. Quick charging leads directly to numerous technical questions regarding the integration of high power charging stations in rural areas. Dynamic reactive power compensation and a short term on demand active power supply on site can be an appropriate approach to realise high power charging with adequate technical efforts. The investigation results of these approaches for intelligent integration of high power charging stations in distribution grids will be discussed. Furthermore, the mains pollution by harmonics will be examined and discussed in the scope of a detailed investigation of the battery charger.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Pollutionofhigh_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Bingchang Ni and Broy, A.},
  title = {Pollution of high power charging electric vehicles in urban distribution grids},
  booktitle = {Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {34 -39},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2011.5942203}
}
Sourkounis, C., Ni, B. and Broy, A. Einfluss des Zwischenkreis-Umrichters auf das Betriebsverhalten des Energieumwandlungsstrangs von Windenergieanlagen speziell mit permanenterregtem Synchrongenerator 2011 VDI-Fachtagung: Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisNiBroy:EinflussdesZwischenkreis-UmrichtersaufdasBetriebsverhaltendesEnergieumwandlungsstrangsvonWindenergieanlagenspeziellmitpermanenterregtemSynchrongenerator_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. and Broy, A.},
  title = {Einfluss des Zwischenkreis-Umrichters auf das Betriebsverhalten des Energieumwandlungsstrangs von Windenergieanlagen speziell mit permanenterregtem Synchrongenerator},
  booktitle = {VDI-Fachtagung: Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen},
  year = {2011}
}
Sourkounis, C., Ni, B. and Richter, F. Comparison of Energy Storage Management Methods to Smooth Power Fluctuations of Wind Parks 2009 Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review)
Vol. 85(10) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SourkounisNiRichter:ComparisonofEnergyStorageManagementMethodstoSmoothPowerFluctuationsofWindParks_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Ni, B. and Richter, F.},
  title = {Comparison of Energy Storage Management Methods to Smooth Power Fluctuations of Wind Parks},
  journal = {Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review)},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {85},
  number = {10}
}
Sourkounis, C. and others Konstruktion verfahrenstechnischer Maschinen
Design of Process Engineering Machinery
2000   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Sourkounisothers:KonstruktionverfahrenstechnischerMaschinenDesignofProcessEngineeringMachinery_2000,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and others},
  title = {Konstruktion verfahrenstechnischer Maschinen
Design of Process Engineering Machinery}, publisher = {Springer Verlag, ISBN 3-540-67670-8}, year = {2000} }
Sourkounis, C., Rösner, J. and others Autonomous Network-Control and Power Conditioning in Decentral Power Supply Systems with High Share of Fluctuating Energy Sources 2001 2nd National Renewable Energy Congress  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisRoesnerothers:AutonomousNetwork-ControlandPowerConditioninginDecentralPowerSupplySystemswithHighShareofFluctuatingEnergySources_2001,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Rösner, J. and others},
  title = {Autonomous Network-Control and Power Conditioning in Decentral Power Supply Systems with High Share of Fluctuating Energy Sources},
  booktitle = {2nd National Renewable Energy Congress},
  year = {2001}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Richter, F. Storage System Management in Wind Parks with high Wind induced Power Fluctuations 2008 International Workshop on Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South-Eastern Europe (DEMSEE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisRichter:StorageSystemManagementinWindParkswithhighWindinducedPowerFluctuations_2008,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Richter, F.},
  title = {Storage System Management in Wind Parks with high Wind induced Power Fluctuations},
  booktitle = {International Workshop on Deregulated Electricity Market Issues in South-Eastern Europe (DEMSEE)},
  year = {2008}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Richter, F. Increase of the Quality of Energy from Stochastic Fluctuation Sources by Dynamic Power Conditioning 2007 International Journal of Enrgy Technology and Policy
Vol. 5(3), pp. 271-279 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SourkounisRichter:IncreaseoftheQualityofEnergyfromStochasticFluctuationSourcesbyDynamicPowerConditioning_2007,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Richter, F.},
  title = {Increase of the Quality of Energy from Stochastic Fluctuation Sources by Dynamic Power Conditioning},
  journal = {International Journal of Enrgy Technology and Policy},
  year = {2007},
  volume = {5},
  number = {3},
  pages = {271-279}
}
Sourkounis, C., Richter, F. and Ni, B. Verification of management methods for power storage in wind parks 2009 Compatibility and Power Electronics, 2009. CPE '09., pp. 134 -138  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The stochastic fluctuating offer of wind energy limits the supply capacity in electrical grids by means of technical and economical reasons. A concept of dynamic conditioning was developed, which envisages support and management of the electrical grid respectively through compensation of active and reactive power with static converters and short time storage. Therefore short time fluctuation of the energy sources and changes of the load can be absorbed directly on location. By the use of dynamic storage systems an intermediate storage of the wind energy is done. This low order energy can thereby be converted into high order callable energy. Therefore the necessary storage capacity depends on the storage management method.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Verificationofmanagement_2009,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Richter, F. and Bingchang Ni},
  title = {Verification of management methods for power storage in wind parks},
  booktitle = {Compatibility and Power Electronics, 2009. CPE '09.},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {134 -138},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2009.5156025}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Cascaded state control for dynamic power conditioning in wind parks 2011 Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on, pp. 1 -7  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The stochastic fluctuating offer of wind energy limits the capacity of supply in electrical grids by means of technical and economical reasons. To increase the supply, a concept of dynamic conditioning with the objective to increase the quality of supply was developed. The concept envisages support and management of the electrical grid respectively through compensation of active and reactive power with static converters ( #x201C;Electronic Synchronous Machine #x201D;) and short time storage. By the four-quadrant operation of the converters, short time fluctuation of the energy sources and changes of the load can be absorbed or smoothed directly on location. By the use of dynamic storage systems an intermediate storage of the stochastic offered primary energy is done. This low order energy can thereby be converted into high order recallable energy, which even can be used to satisfy peak demands. The local compensation of the fluctuation of the energy supply on the one hand and of the changes of the demand on the other hand, allows a more steady energy demand from the nation-wide electrical grid. For this purpose a novel cascaded PI-state control, which a load dependent adaption of the control structure enables was developed and tested.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Cascadedstatecontrol_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Cascaded state control for dynamic power conditioning in wind parks},
  booktitle = {Electrical Power Quality and Utilisation (EPQU), 11th International Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {1 -7},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPQU.2011.6128864}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Electronic synchronous machine for dynamic power conditioning in wind parks 2011 Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop, pp. 56 -61  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The stochastic fluctuating offer of wind energy limits the capacity of supply in electrical grids by means of technical and economical reasons. To increase the supply, a concept of dynamic conditioning with the objective to increase the quality of supply was developed. This contribution describes the construction and the effect-principle of an electronic synchronous machine with active damper-circuit as well as its possible use to the energy respectively power conditioning and improvement of the power quality. The behaviour of synchronous machine is reproduced by static converters and short time storage. By the four-quadrant operation of the converters, short time fluctuation of the energy sources and changes of the load can be absorbed or smoothed directly on location. With the use of dynamic storage systems an intermediate storage of the stochastic offered primary energy is done. This low order energy can thereby be converted into high order recallable energy, which even can be used to satisfy peak demands. The local compensation of the fluctuation of the energy supply on the one hand and of the changes of the demand on the other hand, allows a more steady energy demand from the nationwide electrical grid.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Electronicsynchronousmachine_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Electronic synchronous machine for dynamic power conditioning in wind parks},
  booktitle = {Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), 7th International Conference-Workshop},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {56 -61},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CPE.2011.5942207}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. PI-state control of Electronic Synchronous Machine for dynamic power conditioning in wind parks 2011 Control Automation (MED), 19th Mediterranean Conference on, pp. 339 -344  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The stochastic fluctuating offer of wind energy limits the capacity of supply in electrical grids by means of technical and economical reasons. To increase the supply, a concept of dynamic conditioning with the objective to increase the quality of supply was developed. The concept envisages support and management of the electrical grid respectively through compensation of active and reactive power with static converters ("Electronic Synchronous Machine") and short time storage. By the four quadrant operation of the converters, short time fluctuation of the energy sources and changes of the load can be absorbed or smoothed directly on location. By the use of dynamic storage systems an intermediate storage of the stochastic offered primary energy is done. This low order energy can thereby be converted into high order recallable energy, which even can be used to satisfy peak demands. The local compensation of the fluctuation of the energy supply on the one hand and of the changes of the demand on the other hand, allows a more steady energy demand from the nation-wide electrical grid. For this purpose a novel cascaded Pi-state control, which a load dependent adaption of the control structure enables was developed and tested.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:PI-statecontrolof_2011,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {PI-state control of Electronic Synchronous Machine for dynamic power conditioning in wind parks},
  booktitle = {Control Automation (MED), 19th Mediterranean Conference on},
  year = {2011},
  pages = {339 -344},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MED.2011.5983184}
}
Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. Regelungsgrundkonzept für drehzahlvariable Windenergiekonverter am leistungsschwachen Netz 1999 Elektrie(1-2), pp. 48-60  article  
BibTeX:
@article{SourkounisWenske:RegelungsgrundkonzeptfuerdrehzahlvariableWindenergiekonverteramleistungsschwachenNetz_1999,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J.},
  title = {Regelungsgrundkonzept für drehzahlvariable Windenergiekonverter am leistungsschwachen Netz},
  journal = {Elektrie},
  year = {1999},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {48-60}
}
Sourkounis, C., Wenske, J. and Beck Energiekonditionierung in dezentralen Energieversorgungssystemen 2002 TU Contact
Vol. 6(6) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SourkounisWenskeBeck:EnergiekonditionierungindezentralenEnergieversorgungssystemen_2002,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. and Beck},
  title = {Energiekonditionierung in dezentralen Energieversorgungssystemen},
  journal = {TU Contact},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {6},
  number = {6}
}
Sourkounis, C., Wenske, J. and Beck, H.-P. Die Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen unter dem Aspekt der Energiekonditionierung 1999 Erneuerbare Energien(1, Teil 1 6, Teil 2)  article  
BibTeX:
@article{SourkounisWenskeBeck:DieNutzungregenerativerEnergiequellenunterdemAspektderEnergiekonditionierung_1999,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Die Nutzung regenerativer Energiequellen unter dem Aspekt der Energiekonditionierung},
  journal = {Erneuerbare Energien},
  year = {1999},
  number = {1, Teil 1
6, Teil 2} }
Sourkounis, C., Wenske, J. and Ni, B. Power conditioning by Electronic Synchronous Machine 2010 IECON 2010 - 36th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp. 1987 -1992  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The stochastic fluctuating offer of wind energy limits the capacity of supply in electrical grids by means of technical and economical reasons. To increase the supply, a concept of dynamic conditioning with the objective to increase the quality of supply was developed. The concept envisages support and management of the electrical grid respectively through compensation of active and reactive power with static converters ( #x201C;Electronic Synchronous Machine #x201D;) and short time storage. By the four-quadrant operation of the converters, short time fluctuation of the energy sources and changes of the load can be absorbed or smoothed directly on location. By the use of dynamic storage systems an intermediate storage of the stochastic offered primary energy is done. This low order energy can thereby be converted into high order recallable energy, which even can be used to satisfy peak demands. The local compensation of the fluctuation of the energy supply on the one hand and of the changes of the demand on the other hand, allows a more steady energy demand from the nation-wide electrical grid.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:Powerconditioningby_2010,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. and Ni, B.},
  title = {Power conditioning by Electronic Synchronous Machine},
  booktitle = {IECON 2010 - 36th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society},
  year = {2010},
  pages = {1987 -1992},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2010.5675286}
}
Sourkounis, C., Wenske, J. and Richter, F. Conditioning of Dynamic Power Gradients of Wind Parks 2006 12th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC) 2006, pp. 1431 -1435  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: The stochastically fluctuating offer of wind energy limits the supply capacity in electrical grids by means of technical and economical reasons. To increase the supply, a concept of dynamic conditioning with the objective to increase the quality of supply was developed. The concept envisages supporting and managing of the electrical grid respectively by compensating active and reactive power with static converters ("electronic synchronous machine") and short term storage. Short term fluctuation of the energy sources and changes of the load can be absorbed or smoothed directly on location using the four-quadrant operation of the converters. Stochastically offered primary energy is intermediately stored by using dynamic storage systems. This low order energy can thereby be converted into high order recallable energy, which can even be used to satisfy peak demands. The local compensation of the fluctuating energy supply on the one hand and of the changes of the demand on the other hand, permits a more steady energy demand from the nation-wide electrical grid
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Sourkounis:ConditioningofDynamic_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. and Richter, F.},
  title = {Conditioning of Dynamic Power Gradients of Wind Parks},
  booktitle = {12th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference (EPE-PEMC) 2006},
  year = {2006},
  pages = {1431 -1435},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EPEPEMC.2006.4778604}
}
Sourkounis, C., Wenske, J. and Richter, F. Conditioning of Dynamic Power Gradients of Windparks 2006 European Wind Energy Conference - EWEC  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisWenskeRichter:ConditioningofDynamicPowerGradientsofWindparks_2006,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. and Richter, F.},
  title = {Conditioning of Dynamic Power Gradients of Windparks},
  booktitle = {European Wind Energy Conference - EWEC},
  year = {2006}
}
Sourkounis, C., Wenske, J. and Richter, F. Dynamic Conditioning of Stochastic Fluctuating Energy from Windparks 2005 15th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisWenskeRichter:DynamicConditioningofStochasticFluctuatingEnergyfromWindparks_2005,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. and Richter, F.},
  title = {Dynamic Conditioning of Stochastic Fluctuating Energy from Windparks},
  booktitle = {15th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC)},
  year = {2005}
}
Sourkounis, C., Wenske, J. and Richter, F. Dynamische Konditionierung zur Qualitätssteigerung der Energie aus stochastisch fluktuierenden Quellen 2004 VDI Expertenforum "Entwicklungslinien der Energietechnik"  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisWenskeRichter:DynamischeKonditionierungzurQualitaetssteigerungderEnergieausstochastischfluktuierendenQuellen_2004,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wenske, J. and Richter, F.},
  title = {Dynamische Konditionierung zur Qualitätssteigerung der Energie aus stochastisch fluktuierenden Quellen},
  booktitle = {VDI Expertenforum "Entwicklungslinien der Energietechnik"},
  year = {2004}
}
Sourkounis, C., Wilhöft, A. and Fritsche, A. Gleichstromsteller mit Multiplex-Takt-Betrieb für Verkehrssysteme 2005 ETG-Kongress: Fachtagung "Leistungselektronik und Antriebstechnik"  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SourkounisWilhoeftFritsche:GleichstromstellermitMultiplex-Takt-BetriebfuerVerkehrssysteme_2005,
  author = {Sourkounis, C. and Wilhöft, A. and Fritsche, A.},
  title = {Gleichstromsteller mit Multiplex-Takt-Betrieb für Verkehrssysteme},
  booktitle = {ETG-Kongress: Fachtagung "Leistungselektronik und Antriebstechnik"},
  year = {2005}
}
Spichartz, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Correction of Inverter Voltage Errors for Model-Based Induction Machine Control. 2010 SPEEDAM 2010 - 20th International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion  inproceedings  
Abstract: Highly dynamic stator-flux-oriented controls need an exact modelbased
observer of the induction machine to predict the non-measurable fluxes
and to calculate the speed in sensorless operation. Inverter voltage errors cause
inaccuracy and instability in the observer. Therefore an offline-measurement
procedure without any additional measurement devices is presented, to identify
the error voltages. An online correction is introduced and verified by
measurement results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpichartzHeisingStaudtSteimel:CorrectionofInverterVoltageErrorsforModel-BasedInductionMachineControl._2010,
  author = {Moritz Spichartz and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Correction of Inverter Voltage Errors for Model-Based Induction Machine Control.},
  booktitle = {SPEEDAM 2010 - 20th International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion},
  year = {2010}
}
Spichartz, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Indirect Stator-Quantities Control as Benchmark for Highly Dynamic Induction Machine Control in the Full Operating Range. EPE-PEMC 2010, Ohrid 2010 EPE PEMC 2010 - 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Modern electrical induction machine drives demand highest torque
dynamic with well-defined guidance of the stator flux at the same time. The
stator-flux-oriented Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) satisfies these criteria
in the full operating range. Actual control systems with high processing power are
able to utilize all advantages of ISC.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpichartzHeisingStaudtSteimel:IndirectStator-QuantitiesControlasBenchmarkforHighlyDynamicInductionMachineControlintheFullOperatingRange.EPE-PEMC2010Ohrid_2010,
  author = {Moritz Spichartz and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Indirect Stator-Quantities Control as Benchmark for Highly Dynamic Induction Machine Control in the Full Operating Range. EPE-PEMC 2010, Ohrid},
  booktitle = {EPE PEMC 2010 - 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference},
  year = {2010}
}
Spichartz, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Analytic Prediction of Transient Torque Response for Pilot Control of ISC-based Drive Applications 2009 Przeglad electrotechniczny
Vol. 85(10) 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{SpichartzHeisingStaudtSteimel:AnalyticPredictionofTransientTorqueResponseforPilotControlofISC-basedDriveApplications_2009,
  author = {M. Spichartz and C. Heising and V. Staudt and A. Steimel},
  title = {Analytic Prediction of Transient Torque Response for Pilot Control of ISC-based Drive Applications},
  journal = {Przeglad electrotechniczny},
  year = {2009},
  volume = {85},
  number = {10}
}
Spichartz, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Approximation of Transient Torque Response of a Traction Drive Controlled by Indirect Stator-Quantities Control 2009 6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE), pp. 240 - 247  inproceedings  
Abstract: The dynamic control of four-quadrant line-side converter supplying the inverter-fed induction
machines operating in single-phase 16.7-Hz railway applications is a major concern. Because
of the low grid frequency the time-variant control margin is especially limited. To reduce the
demand on the converter control in case of load changes, the DC-load current is predicted
by a parameter-dependent fourth-order time-delay element.
This paper gives a short introduction to the test bench used for railway grid-interaction
analysis. Furthermore the stator-flux-based Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) of
induction machines as well as the derivation of the dynamic torque response and the resulting
DC-load current are described. The excellent operation of the approximation is verified by
simulation adjusted to measurement results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpichartzHeisingStaudtSteimel:ApproximationofTransientTorqueResponseofaTractionDriveControlledbyIndirectStator-QuantitiesControl_2009,
  author = {Spichartz, M. and Heising, C. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Approximation of Transient Torque Response of a Traction Drive Controlled by Indirect Stator-Quantities Control},
  booktitle = {6th International Conference Workshop Compatibility and Power Electronics (CPE)},
  year = {2009},
  pages = {240 - 247}
}
Spichartz, M., Oettmeier, M., Heising, C., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Stator-Flux-Oriented Control with High Torque Dynamics for IM and PMSM 2010 IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Electric vehicles pose specific challenges to the drive system and the
control scheme. Safety-relevant features like slip-slide control, electronic stability
programs or emergency-brake assistance require fast torque control in the whole
speed range at limited voltage control margin. Stator-flux-oriented Indirect Stator-
Quantities Control (ISC) is limited only by the physical bounds of available voltage
and switching frequency and allows special guidance of the flux trajectory to reach
excellent torque performance. In this paper, ISC is introduced for the induction
machine as well as for the permanent-magnet synchronous machine.
Torque transients are presented for both machine types in comparable dimensioning.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpichartzOettmeierHeisingStaudtSteimel:Stator-Flux-OrientedControlwithHighTorqueDynamicsforIMandPMSM_2010,
  author = {Moritz Spichartz and Martin Oettmeier and Carsten Heising and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Stator-Flux-Oriented Control with High Torque Dynamics for IM and PMSM},
  booktitle = {IEEE VPPC 2010, Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference},
  year = {2010}
}
Spichartz, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. PC-based real-time control system for power-electronic test benches with high I/O requirements May 2011 International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG) 2011  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Spichartz_Staudt_Steimel:PC-based_real-time_control_system_for_power-electronic_test_benches_with_high_IO_requirements,
  author = {M. Spichartz and V. Staudt and A. Steimel},
  title = {PC-based real-time control system for power-electronic test benches with high I/O requirements},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG) 2011},
  year = {May 2011}
}
Spichartz, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. PC-Based Real-Time Control System for Power-Electronic Test Benches with High I/O Requirements May 2011 International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpichartzStaudtSteimel:PC-basedreal-timecontrolsystemforpower-electronictestbencheswithhighI/Orequirements_May2011,
  author = {Moritz Spichartz and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {PC-Based Real-Time Control System for Power-Electronic Test Benches with High I/O Requirements},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Power Engineering, Energy and Electrical Drives (POWERENG)},
  year = {May 2011}
}
Spichartz, M., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Stator-Flux-Oriented Control with High Torque Dynamics in the Whole Speed Range for Electric Vehicles 2010 VDE-Kongress  inproceedings  
Abstract: Electric vehicles (EV) pose specific challenges to the used machine, the
inverter and the control scheme. High torque at low speed combined with very
high maximum speed enforce a wide field-weakening range. In addition the
battery voltage varies as a consequence of state of charge and of acceleration
or deceleration load current. Especially in case of rapid changes from
acceleration to deceleration the voltage changes very quickly. Safety-relevant
features like slip-slide control, electronic stability programs or emergency
brake assistance require fast torque control in the whole speed range.
Stator-flux-oriented Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) satisfies these
criteria with excellent perfor- mance, limited only by the physical bounds of
available voltage and switching frequency. Moreover it does not require any
voltage control margin in field-weakening range. ISC is in practical use in
many railway applications with induction machines. The paper introduces the
control scheme and demonstrates its abilities by simulations using an
induction machine dimensioned for use in an electric vehicle. As the
suggested machine does not exist physically, measurements are performed at
a test bench for railway application, emulating EV conditions with very wide
field weakening by reduction of the DC-link voltage. ISC can be applied to
induction machine and permanent-magnet synchronous machine drives as
well.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SpichartzStaudtSteimel:Stator-flux-orientedcontrolwithhightorquedynamicsinthewholespeedrangeforelectricvehicles_2010,
  author = {Moritz Spichartz and Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Stator-Flux-Oriented Control with High Torque Dynamics in the Whole Speed Range for Electric Vehicles},
  booktitle = {VDE-Kongress},
  year = {2010}
}
Spichartz, P., Schael, M., Ni, B., Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C. Fleet test of electric vehicles regarding their suitability for daily use 2012 Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on, pp. 1396 -1400  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: In the field of electric mobility, many research efforts have been made in the recent years to analyse and develop advanced architectures and technical components for electric vehicles on the one hand. On the other hand, field tests of electric vehicles in daily use are still rare though. With that perspective, the paper describes the performance of a fleet test of electric vehicles with 70 test drivers involved. Information about the test fleet vehicles and the selection process of the test operators as well as the used measuring concepts in the cars are displayed. First results with regard to driven distances, consumer behaviour and energy consumption will be presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Spichartz2012,
  author = {Spichartz, P. and Schael, M. and Ni, B. and Broy, A. and Sourkounis, C.},
  title = {Fleet test of electric vehicles regarding their suitability for daily use},
  booktitle = {Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion (SPEEDAM), 2012 International Symposium on},
  year = {2012},
  pages = {1396 -1400},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SPEEDAM.2012.6264620}
}
Stahlberg, U., Steimel, A. and Van der Weem, J. ETG-VDV-Workshop „Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten für Schienenfahrzeuge" 2005 Elektrische Bahnen
Vol. 103(8), pp. 401-404 
article  
Abstract: Der ETG-VDV-Workshop „Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten für
Schienenfahrzeuge“ fand am 07.04.2005 an der Ruhr-Universität Bochum statt; auf ihm
wurden die Probleme der begrenzten Lebensdauer, vor allem aber der zeitlich begrenzten
Lieferbarkeit und der daraus resultierenden „Obsoleszenz“ elektronischer Komponenten in
ihrer Auswirkung auf die Lieferfähigkeit der Schienenfahrzeughersteller wie die Instandhaltung
bei den Bahnbetreibern dargestellt und zwischen Ingenieuren der Verkehrsunternehmen,
der Bahnindustrie und der Halbleiterindustrie diskutiert.
ETG-VDV Workshop Life Expectancy and Availability of Electronic Components for
Rail Vehicles.
The Joint ETG-VDV Workshop „Life Expectancy and Availability of Electronic Components
for Rail Vehicles“ was held on April 7th, 2005, at Ruhr-University Bochum. Questions arising
from limited life expectancy and – most dominantly – from obsolescence due to limited
availability of electronic components, impeding the industrial ability to deliver and the
maintenance by the railway operators, were worked out and discussed between railway
operators, railway industry and semiconductor manufacturers.
BibTeX:
@article{StahlbergSteimelVan:ETG-VDV-Workshop„LebensdauerundVerfuegbarkeitvonElektronikkomponentenfuerSchienenfahrzeuge_2005,
  author = {Stahlberg, U. and Steimel, A. and Van der Weem, J.},
  title = {ETG-VDV-Workshop „Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten für Schienenfahrzeuge"},
  journal = {Elektrische Bahnen},
  year = {2005},
  volume = {103},
  number = {8},
  pages = {401-404}
}
Stahlberg, U., Steimel, A. and Van der Weem, J. Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten für Schienenfahrzeuge 2005 ETG-Kongress  inproceedings  
Abstract: Auf dem ETG-VDV-Workshop „Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten
für Schienenfahrzeuge“ wurden die Probleme der begrenzten Lebensdauer, vor allem aber der
zeitlich begrenzten Lieferbarkeit und der daraus resultierenden „Obsoleszenz“ elektronischer
Komponenten in ihrer Auswirkung auf die Lieferfähigkeit der Schienenfahrzeughersteller wie
die Instandhaltung bei den Bahnbetreibern dargestellt und zwischen Ingenieuren der
Verkehrsunternehmen, der Bahnindustrie und der Halbleiterhersteller diskutiert
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StahlbergSteimelVan:LebensdauerundVerfuegbarkeitvonElektronikkomponentenfuerSchienenfahrzeuge_2005,
  author = {Stahlberg, U. and Steimel, A. and Van der Weem, J.},
  title = {Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten für Schienenfahrzeuge},
  booktitle = {ETG-Kongress},
  year = {2005}
}
Staudt, V. Dynamic grid-flux-based control for grid connected voltage-source converters 2010 Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review)
Vol. 86(6), pp. 48-56 
article  
Abstract: Power-grid connected voltage-source converters provide two-way energy
exchange with the grid. They are used for renewable energy applications, combined heat
and power, active filtering and loads with dynamically changing working conditions.
Aggravated grid codes and dynamic loads require very fast control methods. A control
based on the integral of the grid voltage (called grid flux) offers extremely fast dynamics
and graphical understanding.
BibTeX:
@article{Staudt:Dynamicgrid-flux-basedcontrolforgridconnectedvoltage-sourceconverters_2010,
  author = {Staudt, Volker},
  title = {Dynamic grid-flux-based control for grid connected voltage-source converters},
  journal = {Przeglad Elektrotechniczny (Electrical Review)},
  year = {2010},
  volume = {86},
  number = {6},
  pages = {48-56}
}
Staudt, V. Fryze - Buchholz - Depenbrock: A time-domain power theory 2008 Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation, 2008. ISNCC 2008. International School on, pp. 1 -12  inproceedings DOI  
Abstract: Several power theories trying to explain the difference between the physically defined active
power and the apparent power are known – and under discussion. This paper gives an
overview of a universal time-domain power theory mainly developed by Fryze, Buchholz and
Depenbrock.
It is verified by theoretical considerations and explained by examples. The theory allows the
assessment of loads concerning effectivity of energy transfer and the application-specific
splitting of currents into desirable and undesirable components – which in turn can, e.g., be
compensated.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Staudt-FBD-TheoryTutorial-ISNCC2008,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Fryze - Buchholz - Depenbrock: A time-domain power theory},
  booktitle = {Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation, 2008. ISNCC 2008. International School on},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1 -12},
  doi = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ISNCC.2008.4627481}
}
Staudt, V. Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Sättigungsverhalten und den Ständerflußverkettungen von Drehfeldmaschinen 2002 Fortschritt-Ber. VDI
Vol. 21 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Staudt:ZusammenhaengezwischendemSaettigungsverhaltenunddenStaenderflussverkettungenvonDrehfeldmaschinen_2002,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Sättigungsverhalten und den Ständerflußverkettungen von Drehfeldmaschinen},
  journal = {Fortschritt-Ber. VDI},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {21}
}
Staudt, V. Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Sättigungsverhalten und den Ständerfluß verkettungen von Drehfeldmaschinen 2002 School: Ruhr-University Bochum  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Staudt:ZusammenhangezwischendemSattigungsverhaltenunddenStanderflussverkettungenvonDrehfeldmaschinen_2002,
  author = {Volker Staudt},
  title = {Zusammenhänge zwischen dem Sättigungsverhalten und den Ständerfluß verkettungen von Drehfeldmaschinen},
  publisher = {Fortschritt-Ber. VDI},
  school = {Ruhr-University Bochum},
  year = {2002}
}
Staudt, V. AC Machine Dynamics described by Space Vectors using State Space Notation 1999 ETEP
Vol. 9(1), pp. 17-25 
article  
Abstract: Asynchronous machines represent by now the majority of applications in the sector of variable speed drives. The demands on the performance of their control have risen as they by now replace DC machines with sophisticated control. Therefore it is necessary to describe the dynamic behavior of an AC machine correctly and at the same time as simple and graphic as possible, because efficient control schemes can be designed best based on a complete understanding of the AC machine dynamics. Such a simple and graphic description can be achieved by combining the space vector theory introduced by Kovacs and Racz with the state space notation. Additionally it is advantageous to introduce a rotating reference frame which can be selected according to the problem at hand.

Combining space vectors and state space notation leads to single complex eigenvalues instead of the usual pair of an eigenvalue and its conjugate. Changing the velocity of the reference frame naturally changes the eigenfrequencies, as can be seen from the eigenvalues in their analytic form calculated and discussed in this paper. It is shown that the effects caused by introducing a rotating reference frame in general have not necessarily to do with induced voltages and Faraday's law.

BibTeX:
@article{Staudt:ACMachineDynamicsdescribedbySpaceVectorsusingStateSpaceNotation_1999,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {AC Machine Dynamics described by Space Vectors using State Space Notation},
  journal = {ETEP},
  year = {1999},
  volume = {9},
  number = {1},
  pages = {17-25}
}
Staudt, V. Compact representation of mathematical functions for control applications by piecewise linear approximations 1998 Electrical Engineering
Vol. 81(3), pp. 129-134 
article  
Abstract: The exact calculation of a lot of mathematical functions frequently used in connection with digital control or simulation needs much time or very quick and expensive processors. In most real-time applications such an exact calculation is therefore not applicable. One possibility to solve this problem is given by the approximation of complicated and time-consuming functions using simple functions, which are easy to calculate. Functions which are linear in sections (composed of straight stretches) are well suited for such an approximation, because they can be calculated without much effort and very quickly on virtually any processor and with any programming language. A very compact way to realize a function which is linear in sections is by summing up a suitable number of absolute value functions. A simple method to derive the parameters of such an approximation for an arbitrary base function is presented.
BibTeX:
@article{Staudt:Compactrepresentationofmathematicalfunctionsforcontrolapplicationsbypiecewiselinearapproximations_1998,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Compact representation of mathematical functions for control applications by piecewise linear approximations},
  journal = {Electrical Engineering},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {81},
  number = {3},
  pages = {129-134}
}
Staudt, V. Effects of window functions explained by signals typical to power electronics 1998 8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VIII), pp. 952-957  inproceedings  
Abstract: lot of questions arising in connection with power quality can best be answered in the frequency domain, that is after performing a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of recorded or simulated time-dependent signals. Modern measuring equipment and modern simulation programs make it easy to perform such a FFT analysis of a time-dependent signal. This FFT analysis leads to a discrete spectrum containing the so-called harmonics of the time-dependent signal. It is well known that the result of such a FFT is only then easy to interpret if the time period used for the analysis matches the period of the time-dependent signal to be analysed. Especially in case of measured signals this often presents a problem. One way to solve this problem is the application of so-called window functions to the time-dependent signal prior to the FFT analysis. However, care has to be taken when applying window functions to some signals typical to power engineering. This paper shows, that severe misinterpretations are possible, and gives guidance for the proper application of window functions in power engineering applications and the correct interpretation of the results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Staudt:Effectsofwindowfunctionsexplainedbysignalstypicaltopowerelectronics_1998,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Effects of window functions explained by signals typical to power electronics},
  booktitle = {8th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VIII)},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {952-957}
}
Staudt, V. Ein Beitrag zu Leistungsbegriffen und Kompensationsverfahren für Mehrleitersysteme 1998 School: Ruhr-University Bochum, Fortschritt-Ber. VDI, 21/291  phdthesis  
BibTeX:
@phdthesis{Staudt:EinBeitragzuLeistungsbegriffenundKompensationsverfahrenfuerMehrleitersysteme_1998,
  author = {Volker Staudt},
  title = {Ein Beitrag zu Leistungsbegriffen und Kompensationsverfahren für Mehrleitersysteme},
  school = {Ruhr-University Bochum, Fortschritt-Ber. VDI, 21/291},
  year = {1998}
}
Staudt, V. An example for dynamic compensation of nonactive power in the case of nonlinear active loads 1996 ETEP
Vol. 6(5), pp. 345- 350 
article  
Abstract: A lot of different definitions for active and non-active quantities and their compensation are known in case of single- or polyphase systems under steady state conditions. In practice the load as well as the source of such a system is varying with time. This requires compensation methods which are ready to deal with dynamic conditions. In the most general case the load may be non-linear and even change from passive to active and vice versa. This paper presents a control scheme for a series compensator (series active filter) in a single-phase circuit which can handle a wide range of passive and active non-linear loads under dynamic conditions. No information about the character of the source and the load is required, as long as load and source current can be controlled by appropriate voltages.
BibTeX:
@article{Staudt:Anexamplefordynamiccompensationofnonactivepowerinthecaseofnonlinearactiveloads_1996,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {An example for dynamic compensation of nonactive power in the case of nonlinear active loads},
  journal = {ETEP},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {6},
  number = {5},
  pages = {345- 350}
}
Staudt, V. Dynamic Parallel Compensation of Active Non-Linear Loads using the FBD-Method 1996 7th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VII), pp. 21-26  inproceedings  
Abstract: A lot of different definitions for active and non-active quantities and their compensation are known in case of single- or polyphase systems under steady state conditions. In practice the load as well as the source of such a system is varying with time. This requires compensation methods which are ready to deal with dynamic conditions. In the most general case the load may be non-linear and even change from passive to active and vice versa. This paper presents a control scheme for a parallel compensator (shunt active filter) in a single-phase circuit which can cope with a wide range of passive and active non-linear loads under dynamic conditions. No information about the character of the source and the load is required, as long as load and source voltage can be influenced by appropriate currents. It can be shown that the control scheme (based on the calculation of an equivalent active conductance according to the FBD-method) leads to stable operation even in a wide range of active loads.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Staudt:DynamicParallelCompensationofActiveNon-LinearLoadsusingtheFBD-Method_1996,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Dynamic Parallel Compensation of Active Non-Linear Loads using the FBD-Method},
  booktitle = {7th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VII)},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {21-26}
}
Staudt, V. An example for dynamic compensation of nonactive power in the case of nonlinear active loads 1995 3rd International Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurement under Nonsinusoidal Conditions  inproceedings  
Abstract: A lot of different definitions for active and non-active quantities and their compensation are known in case of single- or polyphase systems under steady state conditions. In practice the load as well as the source of such a system is varying with time. This requires compensation methods which are ready to deal with dynamic conditions. In the most general case the load may be non-linear and even change from passive to active and vice versa. This paper presents a control scheme for a series compensator (series active filter) in a single-phase circuit which can handle a wide range of passive and active non-linear loads under dynamic conditions. No information about the character of the source and the load is required, as long as load and source current can be controlled by appropriate voltages.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Staudt:Anexamplefordynamiccompensationofnonactivepowerinthecaseofnonlinearactiveloads_1995,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {An example for dynamic compensation of nonactive power in the case of nonlinear active loads},
  booktitle = {3rd International Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurement under Nonsinusoidal Conditions},
  year = {1995}
}
Staudt, V. On the Definition of the Power Factor in the three-phase four-conductor systems under non-sinusoidal conditions 1995 3rd Int. Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurements under Nonsinusoidal Conditions, pp. 57-63  inproceedings  
Abstract: The power factor as one of the most important figures of merit in energy-distribution systems must be defined clearly and without ambiguity in any practically relevant system, including three-phase four-conductor systems. With an increasing number of non-linear loads the definition of the power factor must be valid in case of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal voltages and currents. The German Standard DIN 40110 is currently being extended to multi-conductor systems giving a new definition of the power factor which fulfils all these demands. A similar definition for the power factor has been published by the IEEE Working Group on Nonsinusoidal Situations. This paper compares the two definitions of the power factor from a practical as well as from a theoretical point of view.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Staudt:OntheDefinitionofthePowerFactorinthethree-phasefour-conductorsystemsundernon-sinusoidalconditions_1995,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {On the Definition of the Power Factor in the three-phase four-conductor systems under non-sinusoidal conditions},
  booktitle = {3rd Int. Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurements under Nonsinusoidal Conditions},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {57-63}
}
Staudt, V. Differences between compensation of instantaneous non-active and total non-active power 1994 6th International Conference on Harmonics in Power Systems (ICHPS VI), pp. 381-387  inproceedings  
Abstract: Asynchronous machines in traction applications are normally saturated during voltagecontrolled
operation. The saturation has an influence on the differential inductances of the
stator windings. The value of these differential inductances can be calculated based on a
theory and measured during a pulse period of the feeding voltage-source inverter (VSI). This
paper concentrates on the measurement of differential inductances and contains only a short
recapitulation of the theory. Measured values of differential inductances might be used to
estimate the stator-flux space vector of the asynchronous machine without speed measurement
even at stator frequency zero as a basis for high-performance torque control without speed
measurement.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Staudt:Differencesbetweencompensationofinstantaneousnon-activeandtotalnon-activepower_1994,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Differences between compensation of instantaneous non-active and total non-active power},
  booktitle = {6th International Conference on Harmonics in Power Systems (ICHPS VI)},
  year = {1994},
  pages = {381-387}
}
Staudt, V. Measuring Differential Inductances of Asynchronous Machines 1994 ETEP
Vol. 4(1), pp. 27-33 
article  
Abstract: Asynchronous machines in traction applications are normally saturated during voltage-controlled operation. The saturation has an influence on the differential inductances of the stator windings. The value of these differential inductances can be calculated based on a theory and measured during a pulse period of the feeding voltage-source inverter (VSI). This paper concentrates on the measurement of differential inductances and contains only a short recapitulation of the theory. Measured values of differential inductances might be used to estimate the stator-flux space vector of the asynchronous machine without speed measurement even at stator frequency zero as a basis for high-performance torque control without speed measurement.
BibTeX:
@article{Staudt:MeasuringDifferentialInductancesofAsynchronousMachines_1994,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Measuring Differential Inductances of Asynchronous Machines},
  journal = {ETEP},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {4},
  number = {1},
  pages = {27-33}
}
Staudt, V. Traction Drives without Speed Measuring Device 1991 4th European Conference on Power Electronics And Applications (EPE), pp. 2-561 - 2-566  inproceedings  
Abstract: a.c. machines in traction applications are normally saturated during voltage controlled operation. Some calculations, which are based on a simple model describing the saturated a.c. machine, indicate possibilities to claculate the stator flux without speed measurement even at stator frequency zero.
The new method detects changes of the differential inductances estimated from stator voltages and stator currents. These changes of the differential inductances reslut from saturation effects. The saturation effects and the stator flux space vector are linked. Therefore a signal processor may be used to calculate the staor flux space vector based on measured quantities of stator voltages and stator currents without any speed measuring device, even at stator frequency zero. Knowing the stator flux and stator current space vectors is sufficient for a fast-response control of torque and flux even of high-performance a.c. drives at all stator frequencies.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Staudt:TractionDriveswithoutSpeedMeasuringDevice_1991,
  author = {Staudt, V.},
  title = {Traction Drives without Speed Measuring Device},
  booktitle = {4th European Conference on Power Electronics And Applications (EPE)},
  year = {1991},
  pages = {2-561 - 2-566}
}
Staudt, V., Heising, C., Bartelt, R., Oettmeier, M. and Steimel, A. Pole-Restraining Controlled Active Infeed Converter with Integrated Power-Quality Improvement for AC-Ship Grids 2011 Electric Ship Technologies Symposium  inproceedings  
Abstract: The impact of power-electronic devices in naval
applications is growing steadily. In combination with the available
low short-circuit power, the converters – here, pole-restraining
controlled – have to guarantee power quality within these grids.
Concerning reactive power, voltage levels and frequency control
conventional power-plant control mechanisms can be adapted
– which are not discussed here. Concerning harmonics, the
characteristics of converters allow effective harmonic mitigation.
The set-point value generation for the converter current
harmonics is, here, based on the FBD power theory. Its basic idea
is to load all harmonics contained in the power grid voltages with
clearly defined resistive currents. In this way, a damping effect is
ensured. In contrast to usual active-filtering technologies which
compensate one load or a group of loads based on measured
currents, the suggested set-point value generation bases only on
the voltages at the connection point of the converter.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtHeisingBarteltOettmeierSteimel:Pole-RestrainingControlledActiveInfeedConverterwithIntegratedPower-QualityImprovementforAC-ShipGrids_2011,
  author = {V. Staudt and C. Heising and R. Bartelt and M. Oettmeier and A. Steimel},
  title = {Pole-Restraining Controlled Active Infeed Converter with Integrated Power-Quality Improvement for AC-Ship Grids},
  booktitle = {Electric Ship Technologies Symposium},
  year = {2011}
}
Staudt, V., Heising, C. and Oettmeier, M. Active Infeed Converter with Integrated Power-Quality Improvement applying Pole-Restraining Control 2010 MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission,Distribution and Energy Conversion  inproceedings  
Abstract: Abstract—Solar-, biomass- and combined heat-and-power generation (CHP) connect
in increasing numbers to local power grids. With growing power generation in the
local grid and decreasing power (and short circuit power) from the transmission grid,
the converters used to feed energy into the grid (usually called active infeed
converters, AIC, or active front ends, AFE) have to guarantee power quality within
these grids. Concerning reactive power, voltage levels and frequency control
conventional power plant control mechanisms can be adapted – which is not
discussed here. Concerning harmonics, the characteristics of converters allow
effective harmonic mitigation. The set-point value generation for the converter
current harmonics is here based on the FBD power theory. Its basic idea is to load all
harmonics contained in the power grid voltages with clearly defined resistive currents.
In this way a damping effect is ensured. In contrast to usual active filtering
technologies which compensate one load or a group of loads based on measured
currents, the suggested set-point value generation bases only on the voltages at the
connection point of the converter.
The paper demonstrates that this methodology is superior to fundamental current
generation with regard to grid voltage harmonic mitigation. The methodology is not
restricted to converters feeding energy into the grid. However, from the point of view
of stability these converters are much more problematic than converters taking energy
from the grid. Consequently, the more demanding case is treated here. A further
aspect covered in this paper is the quality of control of the converters: Increasing
infeed by converters increases the coupling between the converters. The local power
grid no longer decouples the converters. Advanced converter control, here applying
pole-restraining, solves this potential problem.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtHeisingOettmeier:ActiveInfeedConverterwithIntegratedPower-QualityImprovementapplyingPole-RestrainingControl_2010,
  author = {Volker Staudt and Carsten Heising and Martin Oettmeier},
  title = {Active Infeed Converter with Integrated Power-Quality Improvement applying Pole-Restraining Control},
  booktitle = {MEDPOWER 2010 - 7th Mediterranean Conference and Exhibition on Power Generation, Transmission,Distribution and Energy Conversion},
  year = {2010}
}
Staudt, V., Heising, C. and Steimel, A. Advanced Simulation Concept for Power Train of an AC Locomotive and its Verification 2007 ICPE 07 Conference  inproceedings  
Abstract: Recent AC railway traction vehicles contain two main power electronic components in the
power train, the four-quadrant converter and the three-phase machine-side inverter. They are
joined by a common DC-link capacitor and – often – a resonant circuit tuned to twice the
supply frequency. Converter and inverter are mainly controlled separately. The overall
performance of the traction vehicle can be improved considerably by an integrated control of
converter and inverter, explicitly taking into account the dynamics of the DC-link filter.
This requires, however, enhanced control and simulation effort. The simulation has to deal
with a hybrid system, described on the one hand by continuous differential equations and on
the other hand by converter switching functions. The continuous part of the system is
described by state-space equations solved by the Bulirsch-Stoer implementation of the
Richardson Extrapolation, the switchings are modeled using Petri Nets. This combination
allows high-speed simulations of the complete system at suitable precision.
For verification the simulation results are compared to measurements made at a 50-kW
laboratory test set-up of the complete power train. At this early stage of the project, simple
control schemes are used for first tests of simulation and test set-up. Measured and simulated
quantities are in very good agreement, allowing to proceed to more sophisticated control
schemes.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtHeisingSteimel:AdvancedSimulationConceptforPowerTrainofLocoanditsVerification_2007,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Heising, C. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Advanced Simulation Concept for Power Train of an AC Locomotive and its Verification},
  booktitle = {ICPE 07 Conference},
  year = {2007}
}
Staudt, V., Heising, C. and Steimel, A. Integrated control of single-phase four-quadrant line-side converter and machine-side inverter for railway traction application. 2007 Korean-German Symposium on Power Electronics *  conference  
Abstract: Modern rail vehicles operating at single-phase 16.7 Hz AC overhead lines employ a fourquadrant
converter on the line side to feed a DC link, to which the machine-side inverter is
connected, feeding the traction motors. State-of-the-art control schemes use separated controls
of the four-quadrant converter and the machine-side inverter. They disregard to a large extent
the influence of the resonant circuit tuned to 33.4 Hz, provided to take up the unavoidable
steady-state power oscillation of the single-phase power supply.
This lecture presents a project, in which four-quadrant converter, resonant tank and
machine-side inverter are treated as one unit, featuring an integrated model-based control of
all quantities. The project aims at improving the dynamic behaviour of the overall system,
taking the resonant circuit and the limited dynamic capability of the four-quadrant converter
directly into account. The concept of the control scheme is described. Measurements
demonstrate the operation of the test set-up.
BibTeX:
@conference{StaudtHeisingSteimel:Integratedcontrolofsingle-phasefour-quadrantline-sideconverterandmachine-sideinverterforrailwaytractionapplication._2007,
  author = {Staudt, Volker and Heising, Carsten and Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Integrated control of single-phase four-quadrant line-side converter and machine-side inverter for railway traction application.},
  booktitle = {Korean-German Symposium on Power Electronics *},
  year = {2007}
}
Staudt, V., Steimel, A., Bauer, P. and Hajek, V. Power Quality and Active Filters as WEB- Controlled Experiment in the frame of PEMC WebLab 2008 13th International Power Electonics and Motion Control Conference EPE-PEMC  inproceedings  
Abstract: PEMC WebLab features online experiments sponsored by the EU. Several real-world
experiments aim at students and engineers of electrical engineering and mechatronics who
want to extend or refresh knowledge. The Power Quality and Shunt Active Filters experiment
is presented. The paper gives the theoretical background concerning Power Quality, describes
the compensation method and the active filter, the example loads which are compensated and
the learning objectives for the students and engineers. Based on understanding Power Quality
and its implications the possibilities, limitations and side effects of a shunt active filter,
featuring extended static compensator (STATCOM) functionality, are discussed. The
experiment can be found via http://pemcweblab.com.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtSteimelBauerHajek:PowerQualityandActiveFiltersasWEB-ControlledExperimentintheframeofPEMCWebLab_2008,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. and Bauer, P. and Hajek, V.},
  title = {Power Quality and Active Filters as WEB- Controlled Experiment in the frame of PEMC WebLab},
  booktitle = {13th International Power Electonics and Motion Control Conference EPE-PEMC},
  year = {2008}
}
Staudt, V., Steimel, A., Bauer, P. and Menzner, S. On-line Active Filter Experiment Combining Theory, Simulation and Measurement. 2009 13th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtSteimelBauerMenzner:On-lineActiveFilterExperimentCombiningTheorySimulationandMeasurement._2009,
  author = {Volker Staudt and Andreas Steimel and P. Bauer and Stefan Menzner},
  title = {On-line Active Filter Experiment Combining Theory, Simulation and Measurement.},
  booktitle = {13th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2009}
}
Staudt, V., Steimel, A., Bauer, P. and Menzner, S. Web-based Experiment introducing Power Quality and Active Filters 2009 2nd International Conference on Power Engineering (POWERENG)  inproceedings  
Abstract: In the field of electrical engineering theory, simulation and experimental verification are key issues for
successful research and development. Students have to acquire this knowledge. Active engineers have
to update and enhance this knowledge, specially with regard to up-to-date technologies. This paper
presents a Web-based experiment introducing Power Quality and Active Filters featuring theory,
simulation and a Web-browser controlled on-line laboratory experiment. It gives a short introduction
to power quality and power theory, describes the layout of the laboratory experiment, its connection to
the Internet “Web”, educational aspects and methods used and finishes with selected measurement
results. In this way the expected learning outcome is shown.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtSteimelBauerMenzner:Web-basedExperimentintroducingPowerQualityandActiveFilters_2009,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. and Bauer, P. and Menzner, S.},
  title = {Web-based Experiment introducing Power Quality and Active Filters},
  booktitle = {2nd International Conference on Power Engineering (POWERENG)},
  year = {2009}
}
Staudt, V., Steimel, A. and Wrede, H. Konzept eines mobilen elektronischen 110kV/ Mittelspannung-Leistungstransformators 2005 ETG-Fachtagung Technische Innovationen in Verteilungsnetzen  inproceedings  
Abstract: Transformatoren zur Anbindung von Mittelspannungsnetzen an die 110-kV-Verteilebene sind oft Sonderanfertigungen und zudem sehr schwer. Die Anfertigung eines solchen Transformators dauert lange. Energieversorgungsunternehmen und große Industriebetriebe müssen daher für jeden installierten Transformatortyp ein Reserveexemplar verfügbar halten – doch auch dann dauert der Ersatz eines defekten Transformators wegen des aufwändigen Transports sehr lange. Abhilfe könnten kleine und leichte Transformatoren schaffen, die per Lastkraftwagen, beispielsweise in Containern, als schnell verfügbarer Ersatz eingesetzt werden könnten. Dazu muss die Betriebsfrequenz der Transformatoren angehoben werden, was nur mit moderner Leistungselektronik möglich ist. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt eine Realisierungsmöglichkeit für einen solchen mobilen elektronischen Leistungstransformator auf Basis verfügbarer Technologien.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtSteimelWrede:Konzepteinesmobilenelektronischen110kV/Mittelspannung-Leistungstransformators_2005,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {Konzept eines mobilen elektronischen 110kV/ Mittelspannung-Leistungstransformators},
  booktitle = {ETG-Fachtagung Technische Innovationen in Verteilungsnetzen},
  year = {2005}
}
Staudt, V. and Würgler, D. Interference assessment: Comparison of reed track circuit computer model and DFT based analysis 2000 COMPRAIL - Computers in Railways VII, pp. 357-366  inproceedings  
Abstract: Compatibility of electric traction vehicles with existing signalling systems is usually assessed by comparing a frequency domain representation of the line current of the vehicle with frequency domain limits. This frequency domain representation of the current is normally reached by applying a Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) or a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm to a time interval of the current. The length of this time interval (window length) and the way in which the values in this time interval are weighted (window function) influence the frequency domain representation considerably and must therefore be selected in accordance with the signalling system to be protected from interference. This paper first describes a model of a reed track circuit receiver based on a linear filter and its validation based on laboratory tests. It then compares the frequency domain representation of this filter to frequency domain representations of window functions used with DFT. From this comparison window length and window function as well as a post-processing algorithm for the DFT results are selected. The aim of this selection is to obtain an assessment method based on DFT which comes close to the behaviour of the filter and hence to the behaviour of the track circuit receiver. Transients (for example transformer inrushes) are very important when assessing compatibility. They can best be treated using time domain methods. Time domain comparisons of the output of a sliding DFT algorithm to the output of the linear filter clearly demonstrate the suitability of the proposed algorithm to the assessment of transients.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtWuergler:Interferenceassessment:ComparisonofreedtrackcircuitcomputermodelandDFTbasedanalysis_2000,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Würgler, D.},
  title = {Interference assessment: Comparison of reed track circuit computer model and DFT based analysis},
  booktitle = {COMPRAIL - Computers in Railways VII},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {357-366}
}
Staudt, V. and Wiesemann, J. Identification of Sinusoidal Functions Contained in a Signal 1996 7th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VII), pp. 375-380  inproceedings  
Abstract: In some applications, for example in power electronics, it is known that a quantity, e.g. a current or a voltage, can be described by only few vital sinusoidal functions. Such a quantity can be represented by a signal obtained as the result of a measurement or a simulation. The signal representing the quantity is normally time-discrete, amplitude-discrete and known for only a time interval. Such a signal can be processed by any digital computer. The decomposition of the signal into sinusoidal functions is normally done using a suitable discrete fourier transform (DFT) or fast fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. Unfortunately, this kind of decomposition is sufficiently accurate only under special conditions. This paper demonstrates a new method to decompose a signal into sinusoidal functions with good accuracy even under conditions where known methods do not lead to the desired result, for example if the frequencies of the sinusoidal functions are not integral multiples of a common (fundamental) frequency.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtWiesemann:IdentificationofSinusoidalFunctionsContainedinaSignal_1996,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Wiesemann, J.},
  title = {Identification of Sinusoidal Functions Contained in a Signal},
  booktitle = {7th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP VII)},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {375-380}
}
Staudt, V. and Wrede, H. Compensation strategies for four-conductor systems 2004 L'Energia Elettrica „Ricerche"
Vol. 81, pp. 182-189 
article  
Abstract: Scientifically correct power definitions and sound compensation strategies for three-conductor systems are known
since many years, commercial products are available. Nowadays, many low-power power electronic devices together
cause undesirable operating conditions in four-conductor systems, making an extension of the scope of definitions
and compensation strategies mandatory. Depending on the theoretical basis used, the extension from three-conductor
definitions to four-conductor definitions is not always straightforward. Based on the straightforward approach given by Fryze, Buchholz and Depenbrock, known as the FBD method, this paper gives guidance on how to avoid traps and common mistakes.
Aims of compensation, mathematics for easy treatment, and resulting consequences as well as solutions based on
active and passive compensators are discussed.
BibTeX:
@article{StaudtWrede:Compensationstrategiesforfour-conductorsystems_2004,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {Compensation strategies for four-conductor systems},
  journal = {L'Energia Elettrica „Ricerche"},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {81},
  pages = {182-189}
}
Staudt, V. and Wrede, H. Optimized Feed Forward Control of a STATCOM with Limited Energy Storage Capability for Flicker Compensation 2004 IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC '04)  inproceedings  
Abstract: Flicker is a totally stochastic variation in the mains voltage which affects ligthing sources and
is also a power quality problem for both power suppliers and industrial process manufacturers.
Currently the main cause of customer complaints due to light flicker is the voltage
fluctuation generated by arc furnaces, which often represent the largest single load of an
electric power utility. Because of cost efficiency the energy storage capability of static
synchronous compensators (STATCOM) for the mitigation of voltage flicker can still only be
small compared to the energy taken by an arc furnace during one period of the line voltage.
This leads to high demands on compensation strategies. In this paper different feed forward
control structures of a STATCOM with limited energy storage capability for flicker
compensation are discussed and assessed by simulations based on voltages and
currents measured at an arc furnace.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtWrede:OptimizedFeedForwardControlofaSTATCOMwithLimitedEnergyStorageCapabilityforFlickerCompensation_2004,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {Optimized Feed Forward Control of a STATCOM with Limited Energy Storage Capability for Flicker Compensation},
  booktitle = {IEEE Power Electronic Specialists Conference (PESC '04)},
  year = {2004}
}
Staudt, V. and Wrede, H. Compensation strategies for four-conductor systems 2003 Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on power definitions and measurements under nonsinusoidal condition, pp. 139-146  inproceedings  
Abstract: Scientifically correct power definitions and sound compensation strategies for three-conductor systems are known since many years, commercial products are available. Nowadays, many low-power power electronic devices together cause undesirable operating conditions in four-conductor systems, making an extension of the scope of definitions and compensation strategies mandatory. Depending on the theoretical basis used, the extension from three-conductor definitions to four-conductor definitions is not always straightforward. Based on the straightforward approach given by Fryze, Buchholz and Depenbrock, known as the FBD method, this paper gives guidance on how to avoid traps and common mistakes.
Aims of compensation, mathematics for easy treatment, and resulting consequences as well as solutions based on active and passive compensators are discussed.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtWrede:Compensationstrategiesforfour-conductorsystems_2003,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {Compensation strategies for four-conductor systems},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on power definitions and measurements under nonsinusoidal condition},
  year = {2003},
  pages = {139-146}
}
Staudt, V. and Wrede, H. On the compensation of non-active current components of three-phase loads with quickly changing unsymmetry 2001 ETEP
Vol. 11(5), pp. 301-307 
article  
Abstract: Some types of loads, like arc furnaces, present a special challenge to compensation strategies. They vary quickly and have a very high rated power. For example the arcs of an arc furnace are not burning continuously especially when starting the melting process. This causes variations of the line voltage with frequencies well below the line frequency commonly known as voltage flicker. Because of cost efficiency the energy storage capability of compensators for the mitigation of voltage flicker effects can still only be small compared to the energy taken by the arc furnace during one period of the line voltage. This paper discusses the use of a compensation tool which quickly detects negative sequence current components in comparison to the calculation of an equivalent conductance using the so-called FBD method (Fryze-Buchholz-Depenbrock method). Simulations are used to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of the tool for detecting negative sequence current components. It is shown that the quick detection and compensation of negative sequence current components can reduce the amount of voltage flicker considerably.
BibTeX:
@article{StaudtWrede:_,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {On the compensation of non-active current components of three-phase loads with quickly changing unsymmetry},
  journal = {ETEP},
  year = {2001},
  volume = {11},
  number = {5},
  pages = {301-307}
}
Staudt, V. and Wrede, H. On the compensation of non-active current components of three-phase loads with quickly changing unsymmetry 2000 5th International Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurement under Nonsinusoidal Conditions, Milano 2000, Conf. Rec. pp. 83-89, pp. 83-89  inproceedings  
Abstract: Some types of loads, like arc furnaces, present a special challenge to compensation strategies. They vary quickly and have a very high rated power. For example the arcs of an arc furnace are not burning continuously especially when starting the melting process. This causes variations of the line voltage with frequencies well below the line frequency commonly known as voltage flicker. Because of cost efficiency the energy storage capability of compensators for the mitigation of voltage flicker effects can still only be small compared to the energy taken by the arc furnace during one period of the line voltage.

This paper discusses the use of a compensation tool which quickly detects negative sequence current components in comparison to the calculation of an equivalent conductance using the so-called FBD method. Simulations are used to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of the tool for detecting negative sequence current components. It is shown that the quick detection and compensation of negative sequence current components can reduce the amount of voltage flicker considerably.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StaudtWrede:Onthecompensationofnon-activecurrentcomponentsofthree-phaseloadswithquicklychangingunsymmetry_2000,
  author = {Staudt, V. and Wrede, H.},
  title = {On the compensation of non-active current components of three-phase loads with quickly changing unsymmetry},
  booktitle = {5th International Workshop on Power Definitions and Measurement under Nonsinusoidal Conditions, Milano 2000, Conf. Rec. pp. 83-89},
  year = {2000},
  pages = {83-89}
}
Steimel, A. Control of the Induction Machine in Traction 1998, and Elektrische Bahnen 96 (1998), no. 12, pp. 361--366 8th International Power Electronics & Motion Control Conference (PEMC), Conf. Rec. K4-1..6  inproceedings  
Abstract: For the success of inverter-fed induction machines in electric railway traction the progress in control methods and circuitry as micro and signal processors was as important as the development of the inverters. While the first generation of three-phase locomotives employed relatively simple scalar slip frequency current characteristic control the principle of rotor field orientation ("vector control") combined with PWM was successfully introduced in the eighties. In the late eighties Direct Self Control (DSC) oriented at stator flux appeared which has special benefits exploiting the restricted switching frequency of high power GTO inverters best. For fast-switching IGBT traction inverters for Light Rail and metro applications Indirect Stator-quantities-Control (ISC) is a promising choice combining the dynamic advantage and robustness of stator flux orientation with the well-proven qualities of PWM.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:Controloftheinductionmachineintraction_1998,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Control of the Induction Machine in Traction},
  booktitle = {8th International Power Electronics & Motion Control Conference (PEMC), Conf. Rec. K4-1..6},
  year = {1998, and Elektrische Bahnen 96 (1998), no. 12, pp. 361--366}
}
Steimel, A. Power-Electronics Issues of Modern Electric Railway Systems. 2010 9th International Conference on Developement and Application Systems  inproceedings  
Abstract: After de-regulation of the former state-owned railways and severe restructuring of
the railway industry in the last 15 years, more innovative vehicle concepts saw the light of the
day. Power electronics, already formerly being a pacemaker for progress of traction vehicles,
brought forth an utmost standardization of the main drive by means of the IGBT-converterfed
induction motor drive. This is independent of the railway supply voltage system or of a
diesel prime mover, for locomotives, high-speed and mass-transit trains as well as for
tramways. Vehicles able to operate on all four European railway voltage systems have
become feasible and are used now widely. New trends as Permanent-Magnet Synchronous
Motors or Medium-Frequency Transformers are discussed, and a short overlook over actual
field-oriented high-performance motor control systems – including a speed-sensorless variant
– is given. Power electronics dominates the field of conversion of the 16.7-Hz railway supply
power, typical for Central Europe, from the 50-Hz three-phase utility grid.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:Power-ElectronicsIssuesofModernElectricRailwaySystems._2010,
  author = {Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Power-Electronics Issues of Modern Electric Railway Systems.},
  booktitle = {9th International Conference on Developement and Application Systems},
  year = {2010}
}
Steimel, A. Elektrischer Eigenbedarf. Energietechnik in Kraftwerken und Industrieeinsatz 2009   inbook  
BibTeX:
@inbook{Steimel:ElektrischerEigenbedarf.EnergietechnikinKraftwerkenundIndustrieeinsatz_2009,
  author = {Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Elektrischer Eigenbedarf. Energietechnik in Kraftwerken und Industrieeinsatz},
  publisher = {VDE-Verlag GmbH},
  year = {2009}
}
Steimel, A. Electric Traction - Motive Power and Energy Supply 2008   book  
Abstract: This book has evolved from the lecture series “Elektrische Bahnen” (“Electric Railways”)
which has been held at Ruhr-Univerität Bochum since 1996. Its primary audience are students
of electrical energy technologies, control engineering and mechanical engineering as well as
young engineers of electrical engineering, especially in the fields of power electronics, in
railway industry and in railway-operating companies. The book intends to convey mechanical
fundamentals of electric railway propulsion, which includes rail-bound guidance, transmission
of traction effort from wheel to rail under the influence of non-constant levels of adhesion and
the transmission of motor torque to a spring-mounted and thus sliding drive set.
The focal point of the book will be the disposition of electric traction units powered by
three-phase induction motors. We shall discuss the stationary and dynamical behaviour of the
squirrel-cage induction motor and the principle and construction features of pulse-controlled
inverters, as well as scalar and field-oriented control systems and four-quadrant power
converters, feeding the DC link of the inverters.
BibTeX:
@book{Steimel:ElectricTraction-MotivePowerandEnergySupply_2008,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Electric Traction - Motive Power and Energy Supply},
  publisher = {Oldenbourg Industrieverlag},
  year = {2008}
}
Steimel, A. Kundennutzen durch neue Bahn-Technologien - Fachtagung im ETG-Kongress 2007 2008 Elektrische Bahnen(1-2), pp. 73-81  article  
Abstract: Die Fachtagung Kundennutzen durch neue Technologien in der Bahntechnik fand im Rahmen
des internationalen Kongresses 2007 der Energietechnischen Gesellschaft (ETG) im VDE in
Karlsruhe statt. Sie gab einen Überblick über den Einsatz von modernen Stadtbahn-
Fahrzeugen auch auf AC-gespeisten Hauptbahnen, den erreichten Stand von Energiespeichern
und ihre Wechselwirkung mit der Stromversorgung bei DC-Bahnen, den Einsatz von
Mehrsystem-Triebfahrzeugen im europäischen Hochgeschwindigkeits- und Güterverkehr
sowie neue Antriebstechnologien.
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:KundennutzendurchneueBahn-Technologien-FachtagungimETG-Kongress2007_2008,
  author = {Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Kundennutzen durch neue Bahn-Technologien - Fachtagung im ETG-Kongress 2007},
  journal = {Elektrische Bahnen},
  year = {2008},
  number = {1-2},
  pages = {73-81}
}
Steimel, A. Ausführungsarten elektrischer Fahrmotoren/Model Types of Electric Propulsion Motors. Beitrag in: Linienbus-Verkehrssysteme mit elektrischem Fahrantrieb/Public Service Bus Systems with electric Propulsion 2007 Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen, VDV-Förderkreis e.V., pp. 36-53  article  
Abstract: Nach einer kurzen grundlegenden Einführung in die Wirkungsweise elektrischer Maschinen
der konventionellen Radialfluss-Bauart werden jeweils Aufbau und Wirkungsweise sowie das
wichtigste elektronische Steuerverfahren von Drehmoment und Geschwindigkeit für den
Gleichstrom-Kommutatormotor, die Induktionsmaschine, den permanenterregten Synchronmotor
sowie den Geschalteten Reluktanzmotor (SRM) beschrieben. Dies wird abgerundet
durch eine kurze Beschreibung der speziellen Außenläufer-Bauform des permanenterregten
Synchronmotor als Radnabenmotors.
Leider sind im Buchbeitrag viele Formelzeichen nicht ausgedruckt!
After a short basic introduction into the principles of conventional radial-flux electric motors
thje construction and operational behaviour as well as the basic power-electronic control
system of DC commutator motor, induction motor, PM synchronous motor and Switched
Reluctance Motor are described. Finally a view on the special exterior-rotor construction of a
PM synchronous hub motor is given.
Unfortunately in the book the formulae are not printed correctly.
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:AusfuehrungsartenelektrischerFahrmotoren/ModelTypesofElectricPropulsionMotors.Beitragin:Linienbus-VerkehrssystememitelektrischemFahrantrieb_2007,
  author = {Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Ausführungsarten elektrischer Fahrmotoren/Model Types of Electric Propulsion Motors. Beitrag in: Linienbus-Verkehrssysteme mit elektrischem Fahrantrieb/Public Service Bus Systems with electric Propulsion},
  journal = {Verband Deutscher Verkehrsunternehmen, VDV-Förderkreis e.V.},
  year = {2007},
  pages = {36-53}
}
Steimel, A. Elektrische Triebfahrzeuge und ihre Energieversorgung, 2. Auflage, ISBN 3-486-27045-1 2006   book  
Abstract: Das vorliegende Buch ist aus der seit 1996 angebotenen Vorlesung „Elektrische Bahnen“ an
der Fakultät für Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik der Ruhr-Universität Bochum
entstanden. Es wendet sich an Studierende der Elektrischen Energietechnik, der
Regelungstechnik und des Maschinenbaus sowie an junge Ingenieure der Elektrotechnik,
besonders aber der Leistungselektronik, in der Bahnindustrie sowie bei den Bahnbetreibern.
Es will zuerst mechanische Grundlagen der elektrischen Zugförderung vermitteln, wie die
Spurführung im Gleis, die Zugkraftübertragung vom Rad auf die Schiene unter dem Einfluss
der wechselnden Adhäsionsbedingungen und die Übertragung des Motordrehmoments auf
den gefederten und damit relativ zum Motor beweglichen Treibradsatz.
Schwerpunkt ist der Aufbau elektrischer Triebfahrzeuge mit Drehstromantriebstechnik
(DAT). Das stationäre und dynamische Betriebsverhalten der Kurzschlußläufer-Asynchronmaschine
und der Aufbau von Pulswechselrichtern, von skalaren sowie feldorientierten
Regelungssystemen und von Vierquadrant-Einspeisestromrichtern werden behandelt. Der
heute geringeren Bedeutung entsprechend werden Antriebe mit Gleichstrom- und
Wechselstrom-Kommutatormotoren und ihre Spannungsstellglieder nur noch kursorisch
beschrieben. Exemplarisch werden moderne Hochleistungslokomotiven,
Hochgeschwindigkeits-Triebzüge, dieselelektrische Lokomotiven und Nahverkehrsfahrzeuge
dargestellt. Ein kurzer Seitenblick gilt den unkonventionellen Bahnen wie Hänge- und
Magnetschwebe-Bahnen.
Da die spezielle – vom allgemeinen Landesnetz gesonderte – Energieversorgung ein
entscheidender Faktor für die Funktion des Systems „Elektrische Bahnen“ ist, werden im 13.
Kapitel die verschiedenen Bahnstromsysteme behandelt, unter den besonderen Aspekten der
Möglichkeiten der Umrichtertechnik in der Bahnstromversorgung wie der Netzrückwirkungen
umrichtergespeister Triebfahrzeuge (14. Kapitel). Das 15. Kapitel enthält einen gerafften
Überblick über die wichtigsten Verfahren der feldorientierten Regelung von Asynchronmaschinen.
Im 16. Kapitel ist eine Literaturzusammenstellung zu finden und im 17. Kapitel
sind die Übungen zur Vorlesung (mit Musterlösungen) wiedergegeben.
BibTeX:
@book{Steimel:ElektrischeTriebfahrzeugeundihreEnergieversorgung2.AuflageISBN3-486-27045-1_2006,
  author = {Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Elektrische Triebfahrzeuge und ihre Energieversorgung, 2. Auflage, ISBN 3-486-27045-1},
  publisher = {Oldenburg- Industrieverlag},
  year = {2006}
}
Steimel, A. Grundlagen der Energietechnik (Basics of Electrical Power Engineering) 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Steimel:GrundlagenderEnergietechnik(BasicsofElectricalPowerEngineering)_2006,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Grundlagen der Energietechnik (Basics of Electrical Power Engineering)},
  publisher = {Institute for Electrical Power Engineering and Power Electronics, Ruhr-University},
  year = {2006}
}
Steimel, A. IGBT Converter interfacing a High-Speed PM Generator in a Cogeneration Unit to the Grid 2006 10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM  inproceedings  
Abstract: In a Joint Project of the Ruhr-area universities of Bochum and Dortmund within
the Research Framework Energieforschung Ruhr (ef.Ruhr) an advanced cogeneration unit is
investigated. It consists of a helical steam motor operated with constant pressure and variable
speed with a nominal power of 400 kW and a nominal speed of 12.000 rpm, a synchronous
generator with surface-mounted Nd–Fe–B permanent magnets and an IGBT converter
interfacing the generated electric power with variable frequency and voltage amplitude to the
constant-frequency constant-voltage conditions of the utility grid with high power quality.
The design of the water-cooled converter will be given; the control adopts the stator-fluxoriented
Indirect Stator-Quantities Control scheme proven successfully in railway traction to
both generator and line converter.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:IGBTConverterinterfacingaHigh-SpeedPMGeneratorinaCogenerationUnittotheGrid_2006,
  author = {Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {IGBT Converter interfacing a High-Speed PM Generator in a Cogeneration Unit to the Grid},
  booktitle = {10th International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM},
  year = {2006}
}
Steimel, A. Leistungselektronik (Power Electronics) 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Steimel:LeistungselektronikPowerElectronics_2006,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Leistungselektronik (Power Electronics)},
  publisher = {Lehrstuhl für Erzeugung und Anwendung Elektrischer Energie, Institute for Electrical Power Engineering and Power Electronics, Ruhr-University},
  year = {2006}
}
Steimel, A. Raumzeigerbasierte Regelung für Power Quality und Induktionsma¬schi¬nen (Space-vector-based control for Power Quality and Induction Machines) 2006   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Steimel:RaumzeigerbasierteRegelungfuerPowerQualityundInduktionsma¬schi¬nen(Space-vector-basedcontrolforPowerQualityandInductionMachines)_2006,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Raumzeigerbasierte Regelung für Power Quality und Induktionsma¬schi¬nen (Space-vector-based control for Power Quality and Induction Machines)},
  publisher = {Institute for Electrical Power Engineering and Power Electronics, Ruhr-University},
  year = {2006}
}
Steimel, A. Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten für Schienenfahrzeuge 2005 ETG-Mitgliederinformation(2), pp. 19-21  article  
Abstract: Auf dem ETG-VDV-Workshop „Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten
für Schienenfahrzeuge“ wurden die Probleme der begrenzten Lebensdauer, vor allem aber der
zeitlich begrenzten Lieferbarkeit und der daraus resultierenden „Obsoleszenz“ elektronischer
Komponenten in ihrer Auswirkung auf die Lieferfähigkeit der Schienenfahrzeughersteller wie
die Instandhaltung bei den Bahnbetreibern dargestellt und zwischen Ingenieuren der
Verkehrsunternehmen, der Bahnindustrie und der Halbleiterhersteller diskutiert.
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:LebensdauerundVerfuegbarkeitvonElektronikkomponentenfuerSchienenfahrzeuge_2005,
  author = {Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Lebensdauer und Verfügbarkeit von Elektronikkomponenten für Schienenfahrzeuge},
  journal = {ETG-Mitgliederinformation},
  year = {2005},
  number = {2},
  pages = {19-21}
}
Steimel, A. Straßenbahnen - einst und jetzt 2005 Berichte und Informationen der HTW Dresden(2), pp. 66-70  article  
Abstract: Ein launiger historischer Überblick über die Entwicklung der Technik der elektrischen
Straßenbahn in Deutschland, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Niederflurbauarten und
der Umrichterantriebstechnik, mit vielen schönen Bildern.
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:Strassenbahnen-einstundjetzt_2005,
  author = {Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Straßenbahnen - einst und jetzt},
  journal = {Berichte und Informationen der HTW Dresden},
  year = {2005},
  number = {2},
  pages = {66-70}
}
Steimel, A. Direct Self-Control and Synchonous Pulse Techniques for High-Power Traction Inverters in Comparison 2004 IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Vol. 51(4), pp. 810-820 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:DirectSelf-ControlandSynchonousPulseTechniquesforHigh-PowerTractionInvertersinComparison_2004,
  author = {Andreas Steimel},
  title = {Direct Self-Control and Synchonous Pulse Techniques for High-Power Traction Inverters in Comparison},
  journal = {IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics},
  year = {2004},
  volume = {51},
  number = {4},
  pages = {810--820}
}
Steimel, A. Elektrische Triebfahrzeuge und ihre Energieversorgung, ISBN 3-486-27045-1 2004   book  
BibTeX:
@book{Steimel:ElektrischeTriebfahrzeugeundihreEnergieversorgungISBN3-486-27045-1_2004,
  author = {Steimel, Andreas},
  title = {Elektrische Triebfahrzeuge und ihre Energieversorgung, ISBN 3-486-27045-1},
  publisher = {Oldenburg-Industrieverlag},
  year = {2004}
}
Steimel, A. Direct Self Control (DSC) and Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) for Traction Applications 2003 Tutorial "DTC and Applications", 10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: This tutorial describes the control system of Direct Self Control (DSC) which was the first direct torque control strategy to be applied in practice and which is used with
high-power inverters with low switching frequency best. After development of induction machine and inverter model in Space Vector notation the basic idea of stator-flux
orientation is developed and from that Direct Flux Self Control and torque hysteresis control as the basic features of DSC are derived. In the following Track-Length Control
is explained which gives DSC an unprecedented dynamic in field-weakening operation with block-mode switching and which is the basis for the quasi-synchronous pulse patterns used in the uppermost voltage range. Finally the combination of DSC with an 18-corner stator-flux trajectory is given.
In the lower speed range of high-power traction drives and with IGBT inverters of low and medium power Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) is favouritely employed. Using the stator-flux oriented approach it combines the robustness of DSC with the well-known behaviour of PWM without using current controllers.
The presentation is confirmed by simulation and experimental results.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:DirectSelfControl(DSC)andIndirectStator-QuantitiesControl(ISC)forTractionApplications_2003,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Direct Self Control (DSC) and Indirect Stator-Quantities Control (ISC) for Traction Applications},
  booktitle = {Tutorial "DTC and Applications", 10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2003}
}
Steimel, A. Zukunftsweisende Bahntechnik 2003 ETZ(3-4), pp. 8-9  article  
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:ZukunftsweisendeBahntechnik_2003,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Zukunftsweisende Bahntechnik},
  journal = {ETZ},
  year = {2003},
  number = {3-4},
  pages = {8-9}
}
Steimel, A. ETG-Fachtagung "Zukunftsweisende Bahntechnik" beim VDE-Kongress 2002 Elektrische Bahnen
Vol. 100(12), pp. 473-476 
article  
Abstract: Die Fachtagung "Zukunftsweisende Bahnsysteme" fand im Rahmen des VDE-Kongresses 2002 " NetWorlds - Leben und Arbeiten in vernetzten Welten" am 22.10.2002 in Dresden statt, ausgerichtet von der Energietechnischen Gesellschaft im VDE (ETG). Sie gab einen Überblick über moderne Konzepte der Bahnstromversorgung, neue Technologien in der Fahrzeugtechnik und Systeminnovationen in der Bahntechnik. Die Ergebnisse der Tagung werden kurz zusammengefasst dargestellt
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:ETG-FachtagungZukunftsweisendeBahntechnikbeimVDE-Kongress_2002,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {ETG-Fachtagung "Zukunftsweisende Bahntechnik" beim VDE-Kongress},
  journal = {Elektrische Bahnen},
  year = {2002},
  volume = {100},
  number = {12},
  pages = {473-476}
}
Steimel, A. Hochdynamische statorfluss-orientierte Regelung eines Asynchron-Traktionsantriebs ohne Drehzahlgeber 2002 Vortrag im SRT-Kolloquium  conference  
BibTeX:
@conference{Steimel:Hochdynamischestatorfluss-orientierteRegelungeinesAsynchron-TraktionsantriebsohneDrehzahlgeber_2002,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Hochdynamische statorfluss-orientierte Regelung eines Asynchron-Traktionsantriebs ohne Drehzahlgeber},
  booktitle = {Vortrag im SRT-Kolloquium},
  year = {2002}
}
Steimel, A. PWM und DSR - Steuerverfahren für Hochleistungstraktionsstromrichter im Vergleich 2002 IEEE-IAS/PElS Joint German Chapter Meeting  conference  
BibTeX:
@conference{Steimle:PWMundDSR-SteuerverfahrenfuerHochleistungstraktionsstromrichterimVergleich_2002,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {PWM und DSR - Steuerverfahren für Hochleistungstraktionsstromrichter im Vergleich},
  booktitle = {IEEE-IAS/PElS Joint German Chapter Meeting},
  year = {2002}
}
Steimel, A. Stator-Flux-Oriented High Performance Control in Traction 2000 35th Annual Meeting IEEE Industry Application Society35th Annual Meeting IEEE IAS Industry Application Society, Tutorial H-4  conference  
Abstract: After a short introduction in the demand of highly dynamic control of traction machines the models of the squirrel-cage induction machine and of the Voltage-Source Inverter are given, using Space Vector notation.
The second chapter describes as the first model-based stator-flux-oriented control system Direct Self Control (DSC), developped since 1984 and mostly suited for very high power drives with low inverter switching frequency. It is in use in over 2.000 locomotives and railcars all over the world. Flux self control (comparing stator flux coordinates with controlled thresholds, actuating the inverter output voltage selection) and torque hysteresis control are derived, Dynamic Field Weakening is introduced and - for the range
of high stator frequency - Track Length Control with 6- and 18-corner stator flux trajectories. Finally DSC with 18-corner flux curve and Direct Torque Control (DTC) with flux hysteresis band control used in industrial application are explained.
In the third chapter the principle of stator-flux-orientation is adapted to the possibilities of recent fast-switching IGBT inverters, in combination with common Pulse Width Modulation methods, mainly used for Light Rail applications. Special methods for the transition to the field-weakening range by overmodulation and for Dynamic Field Weakening are explained. The exact correction of all inverter voltage errors finally allows to dispense with current balancing controllers, used up to now to chain the real machine to
the controlled model system.
The fourth chapter develops a strategy to use the information of the difference between model and machine currents now free to estimate other parameters, here the speed and the stator resistance, which allows to dispense with speed sensors. Methods to magnetize the machine when speed and residual magnetization are unknown, are shortly explained. As the machine model is linear permanent operation at zero frequency is not possible. A strategy
to avoid this situation by manipulation of flux magnitude is presented, which allows infinitely slow change between motoring and braking operation.
The Tutorial is a compendium of the works of the Chair EAEE on the field of induction machine control during the last 16 years.
BibTeX:
@conference{Steimel:Stator-flux-orientedhighperformancecontrolintraction.TutorialH-4_2000,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Stator-Flux-Oriented High Performance Control in Traction},
  booktitle = {35th Annual Meeting IEEE IAS Industry Application Society, Tutorial H-4},
  journal = {35th Annual Meeting IEEE Industry Application Society},
  year = {2000}
}
Steimel, A. Regelungsverfahren für Traktionsumrichterantriebe - ein Überblick 1999 Moderne Leistungshalbleiter und Leistungselektroniksysteme in der Bahntechnik  conference  
Abstract: Fuer den Erfolg der umrichtergespeisten Asynchrontraktionmaschine war der Fortschritt bei den Regelungsverfahren und den informationsverarbeitenden Bauelementen wie Mikro- und Signal-Prozessoren genauso entscheidend, wie die Entwicklungen der Leistungselektronik. Die erste Generation umrichtergespeister Lokomotiven setzte noch die relativ einfache skalare Schlupf-Strom-Kennliniensteuerung ein. In den achtziger Jahren wurde das Prinzip der Rotorfeldorientierung (vektorielle Regelung), verbunden mit pulsweitenmodulierter Steuerung, eingefuehrt. Ende der achtziger Jahre trat die Direkte Selbstregelung (DSR) auf den Plan, die am Staenderfluss orientiert arbeitet und besondere Vorzuege fuer Hochleistungsantriebe mit GTO-Wechselrichtern bietet, da sie die beschraenkte Schaltfrequenz dieser Stellglieder optimal ausnutzt. Fuer schnellschaltende IGBT-Traktionswechselrichter fuer Strassen- und U- Bahnanwendungen ist die Indirekte Statorgroessenregelung (ISR) eine viel- versprechende Moeglichkeit, da sie die dynamischen Vorteile und die Robustheit der Staenderflussorientierung mit den bekannten vorteilhaften Eigenschaften der Pulsweitenmodulation verbindet.
BibTeX:
@conference{:_a,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Regelungsverfahren für Traktionsumrichterantriebe - ein Überblick},
  booktitle = {Moderne Leistungshalbleiter und Leistungselektroniksysteme in der Bahntechnik},
  year = {1999}
}
Steimel, A. Control of the induction machine in traction 1998 Elektrische Bahnen
Vol. 96(12), pp. 361 - 369 
article  
Abstract: For the success of inverter-fed induction machines in electric railway traction the progress in control methods and circuitry as micro and signal processors was as important as the development of the inverters. While the first generation of three-phase locomotives employed relatively simple scalar slip frequency current characteristic control the principle of rotor field orientation ("vector control") combined with PWM was successfully introduced in the eighties. In the late eighties Direct Self Control (DSC) oriented at stator flux appeared which has special benefits exploiting the restricted switching frequency of high power GTO inverters best. For fast-switching IGBT traction inverters for Light Rail and metro applications Indirect Stator-quantities-Control (ISC) is a promising choice combining the dynamic advantage and robustness of stator flux orientation with the well-proven qualities of PWM.

Fuer den Erfolg der umrichtergespeisten Asynchrontraktionmaschine war der Fortschritt bei den Regelungsverfahren und den informationsverarbeitenden Bauelementen wie Mikro- und Signal-Prozessoren genauso entscheidend, wie die Entwicklungen der Leistungselektronik. Die erste Generation umrichter- gespeister Lokomotiven setzte noch die relativ einfache skalare Schlupf- Strom-Kennliniensteuerung ein. In den achtziger Jahren wurde das Prinzip der Rotorfeldorientierung (vektorielle Regelung), verbunden mit pulswei- tenmodulierter Steuerung, eingefuehrt. Ende der achtziger Jahre trat die Direkte Selbstregelung (DSR) auf den Plan, die am Staenderfluss orientiert arbeitet und besondere Vorzuege fuer Hochleistungsantriebe mit GTO-Wechsel- richtern bietet, da sie die beschränkte Schaltfrequenz dieser Stellglieder optimal ausnutzt. Fuer schnellschaltende IGBT-Traktionswechselrichter fuer Strassen- und U-Bahnanwendungen ist die Indirekte Statorgroessenregelung (ISR) eine vielversprechende Möglichkeit, da sie die dynamischen Vorteile und die Robustheit der Ständerflussorientierung mit den bekannten vorteil- haften Eigenschaften der Pulsweitenmodulation verbindet

BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:Controloftheinductionmachineintraction_1998a,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Control of the induction machine in traction},
  journal = {Elektrische Bahnen},
  year = {1998},
  volume = {96},
  number = {12},
  pages = {361 - 369}
}
Steimel, A. Die Direkte Selbstregelung und ihr Einsatz bei Elektrischen Hochleistungslokomotiven 1997 Technische Universität  conference  
Abstract: Hochleistungsantriebe für Schienentriebfahrzeuge (Lokomotiven und Triebwagen) erfordern zum einen eine extrem hohe Ausnutzung aller antriebstechnischen Komponenten, zum andern aber auch eine sehr hohe Drehmomentregeldynamik, um mit den vielfältigen Störungen wie Bügelsprung oder Schleudern/Gleiten bei knapper Auslegung gut zurecht zu kommen. Da in Europa die Nenn-Zwischenkreisspannung der GTO-Wechselrichter i. A. sehr hoch ist, kann die Schaltfrequenz nur relativ niedrig sein (typisch 250 Hz). Auf diesen grundsätzlichen Zusammenhang nimmt die Regelstrategie der "Direkten Selbstregelung" (DSR) besonders Rücksicht, die vor nunmehr 12 Jahren von Prof. Depenbrock erfunden und seitdem in Bochum weiterentwickelt wurde. Die Grundmerkmale der DSR (als Sammelbegriff für alle seitdem entwickelten, am Augenblickswert des Ständerflusses orientierten Verfahren) sind:

Extrem hohe Dynamik, die nur von den physikalischen Grenzwerten wie ZK-Spannung und Motorstreuinduktivität begrenzt wird

Robustheit gegen Schwankungen der Eingangsspannung, da deren Augenblickswert immer in die Berechnung aller Führungsgrößen eingeht

Geringe Parameterempfindlichkeit, da nur der Ständerwiderstand in die Berechnung der Flüsse und Drehmomente eingeht

Keine unkontrollierten Ausgleichsvorgänge, da Drehmoment und Fluß immer direkt geführt werden

Einfache Verfahrenswechsel (wie etwa abhängig von der Aussteuerung oder der Form der Flußbahnkurve )

Keine Koordinatentransformationen erforderlich, da stets ohnehin skalare Größen wie "Flußbetrag" oder "Drehmoment" geregelt werden

Sichere Einhaltung aller Grenzwerte, wie es für Hochleistungswechselrichter besonders wichtig ist, stets garantiert oder einfach und übersichtlich implementierbar

Der Vortrag soll erläutern, wie die DSR diese Ziele im einzelnen erreicht.

BibTeX:
@conference{Steimel:DieDirekteSelbstregelungundihrEinsatzbeiElektrischenHochleistungslokomotiven_1997,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Die Direkte Selbstregelung und ihr Einsatz bei Elektrischen Hochleistungslokomotiven},
  booktitle = {Technische Universität},
  year = {1997}
}
Steimel, A. Electric Railway Traction in Europe 1996 IEEE Industry Applications Magazine
Vol. 2(6), pp. 6-17 
article  
Abstract: The paper describes the state-of-the-art and the main evolutionary trends in the field of electric railway traction technology in Europe emphazising inverter-fed three-phase drives. The important low-loss snubber circuits for GTO converters are discussed as well as the special circuits in use for multi-system locomotives and the appropriate cooling systems. The survey is completed by an overview over the field-oriented control strategies employed for traction machines.
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:ElectricRailwayTractioninEurope_1996,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Electric Railway Traction in Europe},
  journal = {IEEE Industry Applications Magazine},
  year = {1996},
  volume = {2},
  number = {6},
  pages = {6-17}
}
Steimel, A. Electric Railway Traction In Europe - A Survey of the State of the Art 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE '96), pp. 40-48  inproceedings  
Abstract: The paper describes the state-of-the-art and the main evolutionary trends in the field of electric railway traction technology in Europe emphazising inverter-fed three-phase drives. The important low-loss snubber circuits for GTO converters are discussed as well as the special circuits in use for multi-system locomotives and the appropriate cooling systems. The survey is completed by an overview over the field-oriented control strategies employed for traction machines.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:ElectricRailwayTractionInEurope-ASurveyoftheStateoftheArt_1996,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Electric Railway Traction In Europe - A Survey of the State of the Art},
  booktitle = {IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE '96)},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {40-48}
}
Steimel, A. Die Antriebstechnik der Elektrischen Bahnen in Europa 1995 University of Science & Technology, Shanghai Society of Electrical Engineering  conference  
BibTeX:
@conference{Steimel:DieAntriebstechnikderElektrischenBahneninEuropa_1995,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Die Antriebstechnik der Elektrischen Bahnen in Europa},
  booktitle = {University of Science & Technology, Shanghai Society of Electrical Engineering},
  year = {1995}
}
Steimel, A. Weiterentwicklung der Direkten Selbstregelung (DSR) für Anwendungen in der Traktion 1995 University of Science & Technology  conference  
BibTeX:
@conference{Steimel:WeiterentwicklungderDirektenSelbstregelung(DSR)fuerAnwendungeninderTraktion_1995,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Weiterentwicklung der Direkten Selbstregelung (DSR) für Anwendungen in der Traktion},
  booktitle = {University of Science & Technology},
  year = {1995}
}
Steimel, A. Steuerungsbedingte Unterschiede von wechselrichtergespeisten Traktionsantrieben 1994 Elektrische Bahnen
Vol. 92(1/2), pp. 24-36 
article  
Abstract: Für Asynchronfahrmotoren speisende Pulswechselrichter stehen heute mit der feldorientierten Regelung mit synchronisierter Pulsweitenmodulation sowie mit der Direkten Selbstregelung zwei leistungsfähige Regelverfahren zur Verfügung. Es wird gezeigt, dass die dynamisch höchstwertige Direkte Selbstregelung auch die begrenzte Taktfrequenz der Hochleistungswechselrichter besser ausnutzt und dadurch die Belastungen des Antriebs durch Strom- und Drehmomentober- schwingungen sowiedes Netzes durch niederfrequente Rückwirkungen vorteilhaft verringert.

Inverters feeding AC traction motors are today controlled by advanced control schemes as Field- Oriented Control combined with synchronized Pulse Width Modulation or by Direct Self Control. The investigation shows that the highly dynamic Direct Self Control utilises the restricted switching frequency of the high-power inverter best. Motor current harmonics and torque oscillations are reduced as well as the DC link AC components producing line interference.

BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:SteuerungsbedingteUnterschiedevonwechselrichtergespeistenTraktionsantrieben_1994,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Steuerungsbedingte Unterschiede von wechselrichtergespeisten Traktionsantrieben},
  journal = {Elektrische Bahnen},
  year = {1994},
  volume = {92},
  number = {1/2},
  pages = {24-36}
}
Steimel, A. Control Strategies for Induction Machines in Traction Applications 1993 KAIST-Workshop "New Transportation Systems"  conference  
Abstract: The induction traction machine fed by Voltage Source Inverters has proved extremely successfull, due to the system benefits by GTOs and due to the progress in control circuitry enabling advanced strategies. The development led from simple but slow Slip Frequency Current Control to highly dynamic Field-Oriented Control. In contest are the rotor-flux-oriented method ("Vector Control") and the stator-flux-based Direct Self Control advantageous for high power inverters.
BibTeX:
@conference{Steimel:ControlStrategiesforInductionMachinesinTractionApplications_1993,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Control Strategies for Induction Machines in Traction Applications},
  booktitle = {KAIST-Workshop "New Transportation Systems"},
  year = {1993}
}
Steimel, A. Line Interference by A.C. Traction Material Controlled by Power Electronic Systems 1993 KAIST-Workshop „New Transportation Systems“, pp. 30-37  inproceedings  
Abstract: During the last 20 years power electronic control of electric rail vehicles has asserted itself. All convertors charge the line with reactive displacement and distortion currents effecting losses and interfere with track circuits and communication systems. The paper analyzes the specific charge by phase-controlled rectifiers and Four-Quadrant-Controllers and describes suited means to reduce the disturbing line interference centring on the problems of vehicles with three-phase drives.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:LineInterferencebyA.C.TractionMaterialControlledbyPowerElectronicSystems_1993,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Line Interference by A.C. Traction Material Controlled by Power Electronic Systems},
  booktitle = {KAIST-Workshop „New Transportation Systems“},
  year = {1993},
  pages = {30-37}
}
Steimel, A. High Power Traction Converters, A Survey of the State-of-the-Art in Europe 1992 ISPE'92 International Symposium on Power Electronics, pp. 452-463  inproceedings  
Abstract: In railway traction the three-phase drive system with inverter-fed induction motors has asserted itself, with 1100 locomotives and even more suburban cars running. While the first vehicles were equipped with forced-commutated thyristor inverters and open-loop slip-frequency control, the recent standard are self-turn-off power devices as GTOs, and highly advanced fieldoriented or direct control of torque and flux. The new unsymmetrical snubber circuit for high-power GTOs reduced inverter losses to 50 %, weight to some 25% within the last 20 years.For a.c. overhead supply the self-commutated lineside converter is now standard; re-grouping it as step-up choppers for operation under d.c. line opens new economic solutions for multi-system vehicles. Modern cooling technologies are explained, recent examples for European very high power applications given. With the increasing capability of the inverters the demands on the control system grew, too; best suited for traction inverters seems Direct Self Control using the restricted switching frequency best, yet allowing time-optimal torque control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:HighPowerTractionConvertersASurveyoftheState-of-the-ArtinEurope_1992,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {High Power Traction Converters, A Survey of the State-of-the-Art in Europe},
  booktitle = {ISPE'92 International Symposium on Power Electronics},
  year = {1992},
  pages = {452-463}
}
Steimel, A. Application of Evaporative-cooled GTO Inverters and Transistor Auxiliary Inverters
on a Diesel-Electric Locomotive
1990 Elektrische Bahnen
Vol. 88(3), pp. 149-154 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:ApplicationofEvaporative-cooledGTOInvertersandTransistorAuxiliaryInvertersonaDiesel-ElectricLocomotive_1990,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Application of Evaporative-cooled GTO Inverters and Transistor Auxiliary Inverters 
on a Diesel-Electric Locomotive}, journal = {Elektrische Bahnen}, year = {1990}, volume = {88}, number = {3}, pages = {149-154} }
Steimel, A. Netzbelastung durch Wechselstrom-Triebfahrzeuge mit leistungselektronischer Steuerung 1990 etz Archiv
Vol. 12(3), pp. 69-79 
article  
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:NetzbelastungdurchWechselstrom-TriebfahrzeugemitleistungselektronischerSteuerung_1990,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Netzbelastung durch Wechselstrom-Triebfahrzeuge mit leistungselektronischer Steuerung},
  journal = {etz Archiv},
  year = {1990},
  volume = {12},
  number = {3},
  pages = {69-79}
}
Steimel, A. Application of Evaporative-cooled GTO Inverters and Transistor Auxiliary Inverters
on a Diesel-Electric Locomotive
1989 3rd Europ. Conf. on Power Electronics, pp. 1575-1580  inproceedings  
Abstract: Self-turn-off devices offer great benefits for traction inverters as they can commutate high currents independently of the amplitude of the input voltage; this enlarges the field of economic operation of the inverter. Thus GTO thyristors supersede forced-commutation in traction main drives, transistors in auxiliary drives.
The expense for an GTO high-power inverter is considerably determined by the snubber circuits relieving the GTOs from switching stress and the protection against the consequences of short-circuits. The low-loss asynmmetric "Undeland" snubber circuit gives the best overall performance.
Immersed fluid cooling systems show great advantages for high power GTO inverters. The fluorocarbone (R113) evaporation cooling is highly effective, especially when combined with a water intermediate system.
This inverter design for a 1400 kVA traction inverter is applied first on the four diesel-electric locomotives DE 1003 for Ruhrkohle AG.
The auxiliary drives are equipped with three-phase motors, supplied by 4 individual transistor inverters fed from the main d.c. link via a GTO half-bridge inverter. The power applied is controlled according to the actual demand and moreover, during dynamic braking and brake energy is utilized.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:ApplicationofEvaporative-cooledGTOInvertersandTransistorAuxiliaryInvertersonaDiesel-ElectricLocomotive_1989,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Application of Evaporative-cooled GTO Inverters and Transistor Auxiliary Inverters 
on a Diesel-Electric Locomotive}, booktitle = {3rd Europ. Conf. on Power Electronics}, year = {1989}, pages = {1575-1580} }
Steimel, A. GTO-Umrichter mit Spannungszwischenkreis 1988 ETG-Fachtagung 23 „Abschaltbare Elemente der Leistungselektronik und ihre Anwendungen“, pp. 333-343  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{Steimel:GTO-UmrichtermitSpannungszwischenkreis_1988,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {GTO-Umrichter mit Spannungszwischenkreis},
  booktitle = {ETG-Fachtagung 23 „Abschaltbare Elemente der Leistungselektronik und ihre Anwendungen“},
  year = {1988},
  pages = {333-343}
}
Steimel, A. Die Einschaltverluste eines Thyristors bei gateloser Nachzündung mit Differentialübertrager. 1975 ETZ-A
Vol. 96(8), pp. 350-351 
article  
Abstract: Für die Messung der Einschaltverluste eines Thyristors durch eine gatelose Zündung mit Differentialübertrager wurde ein Thyristor mit Gate um eine gatelose Nachzündung ergänzt, um den direkten Vergleich mit der herkömmlichen Zündungsart zu ermöglichen. Die Änderung der Einschaltverluste wurde gemessen, die Ergebnisse werden diskutiert.
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:DieEinschaltverlusteeinesThyristorsbeigateloserNachzuendungmitDifferentialuebertrager._1975,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Die Einschaltverluste eines Thyristors bei gateloser Nachzündung mit Differentialübertrager.},
  journal = {ETZ-A},
  year = {1975},
  volume = {96},
  number = {8},
  pages = {350-351}
}
Steimel, A. Untersuchung über das Einschaltverhalten eines neuartigen gatelosen Thyristors 1974 ETZ-A
Vol. 95(5), pp. 288-289 
article  
Abstract: Über eine neuartige Thyristoranordnung wird berichtet, die günstige Eigenschaften für Großthyristoren - z.B. in HGÜ-Anlagen - sowie bei der Anwendung bei Mittelfrequenz hat. Das Prinzip beruht darauf, dass man Thyristoren mit unterteilter Kathode durch einen Spannungsimpuls zwischen den Kathodenteilen zünden kann, da die Shortungselemente die Funktion des Gates übernehmen. Der Leistungs- und Geräteaufwand ist überraschend klein. Mit dem neuen Prinzip kann man lange Zündlinien bei kleiner Zündleistung, kurze Lateralausbreitungswege und vor allem eine ungewöhnlich intensive Zündung durch ein mehrfach wechselndes Querfeld in der Zündzone erreichen.
BibTeX:
@article{Steimel:UntersuchungueberdasEinschaltverhalteneinesneuartigengatelosenThyristors_1974,
  author = {Steimel, A.},
  title = {Untersuchung über das Einschaltverhalten eines neuartigen gatelosen Thyristors},
  journal = {ETZ-A},
  year = {1974},
  volume = {95},
  number = {5},
  pages = {288-289}
}
Steimel, A. and Franco, V. Compensacao de harmonicos de baixa frequencia atraves do controle do torque 1999 COBEP'99, pp. Vol. 2S., 836-841  inproceedings  
Abstract: In this paper the authors present an active compensation Method of low frequency harmonics, such as those associated with the overhead cables of railway Vehicles. This Method implies the use of only the control`s torque for the compensation of undesirable harmonic.

The Method here presented contrary to others which present ative filters, dispenses the use of heavy hardware, the demand for space is reduced and as a result there is no weight increase of course this has a direct result in reducing cost. These items are of a fundamental importance for new projects such as locomotives which utilize induction motors. The obtained results show that this Method has good performance at an economical cost.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SteimelFranco:Compensacaodeharmonicosdebaixafrequenciaatravesdocontroledotorque_1999,
  author = {Steimel, A. and Franco, V.L.D.S.},
  title = {Compensacao de harmonicos de baixa frequencia atraves do controle do torque},
  booktitle = {COBEP'99},
  year = {1999},
  pages = {Vol. 2S., 836-841}
}
Steimel, A. and J., T. A New Test Bench for High Power Turn-Off Semiconductor Devices 1995 6th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE), pp. 1. 631-636  inproceedings  
Abstract: A new test bench for high power turn-off semiconductor devices (GTO, IGBT, MCT,...) is described which allows to investigate the switching characteristics of high power devices and the behaviour of snubber circuits under conditions encountered in practical applications. In single-shot operation the junction temperature of the device under test (D.U.T.) can be controlled from -40 °C up to +125 °C. The turn-on and the turn-off behaviour of the GTOs and the stress of the snubber diodes in the low-loss asymmetrical snubber circuits used in recent high-power locomotive inverters are described and documented with measured results. The reverse recovery of the main feedback diode producing considerable losses is explained. The principal switching waveforms in the asymmetric and the symmetric low-loss snubber circuit are compared.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SteimelJ.:ANewTestBenchforHighPowerTurn-OffSemiconductorDevices_1995,
  author = {Steimel, A and Teigelkötter J.},
  title = {A New Test Bench for High Power Turn-Off Semiconductor Devices},
  booktitle = {6th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {1995},
  pages = {1. 631-636}
}
Steimel, A. and Voss, L.D. High-Power Shunt Compensator with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 2006 Journal of Electrical Engineering, Timisoara, RO
Vol. 6(10) 
article  
Abstract: A SMES presents an economic energy storage for short-term protection of sensitive high
power loads from voltage sags and outages. It can be coupled to the protected load
advantageously via a thyristor converter with controlled clamp valves, forming a shuntconnected
UPS system. The principles of operation of the line-commutated interface
converter and the requirements for UPS operation without the grid supplying the commutation
non-active power are discussed. The concept has been verified by measurements on a 30-kW
lab prototype, in which the SMES was modelled by a thyistor converter with appropriate
control.
BibTeX:
@article{SteimelVoss:High-PowerShuntCompensatorwithSuperconductingMagneticEnergyStorage_2006,
  author = {Steimel, A. and Voss, L. D.},
  title = {High-Power Shunt Compensator with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage},
  journal = {Journal of Electrical Engineering, Timisoara, RO},
  year = {2006},
  volume = {6},
  number = {10}
}
Steimel, A. and Voss, L.D. High-Power Shunt Compensator with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 2004 9th Intern. Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM'04), pp. 203-208  inproceedings  
Abstract: A SMES presents an economic energy storage for short-term protection of sensitive high power loads from voltage sags and outages. It can be coupled to the protected load advantageously via a thyristor converter with controlled clamp valves, forming a shunt-connected UPS system. The principles of operation of the line-commutated interface converter and the requirements for UPS operation without the grid supplying the commutation non-active power are discussed. The concept has been verified by measurements on a 30-kW lab prototype, in which the SMES was modelled by a thyistor converter with appropriate control.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SteimelVoss:High-PowerShuntCompensatorwithSuperconductingMagneticEnergyStorage_2004,
  author = {Steimel, A. and Voss, L. D.},
  title = {High-Power Shunt Compensator with Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage},
  booktitle = {9th Intern. Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (OPTIM'04)},
  year = {2004},
  pages = {203-208}
}
Steimel, A. and Wiesemann, J. Further Development of Direct Self Control for Application in Electric Traction 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE'96), pp. 180-185  inproceedings  
Abstract: Direct Self Control was primarily developped for optimal steady-state and dynamic torque quality at the low switching frequencies of high power traction inverters. Though d.c. line harmonics and peak inverter current can be compared with those of PWM drives with same switching frequency there are now new possibilities by new Digital Signal Processors to improve that too. The 6-pulse d.c. link reaction of the inverter is cancelled by introducing an eighteen-corner track curve. The same track curve can be employed advantageously with blocked pulsing as synchronous switching mode to avoid subharmonic torques in the high speed area. A current limitation detaching the torque two-level control increases the average torque up to 24% with same peak current,but with increased torque pulsation. The excellent dynamic properties of all DSC modes show how DSC is suited optimally for electric traction.

Weiterentwicklung der Direkten Selbstregelung (DSR) für Anwendungen in der Traktion

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{SteimelWiesemann:FurtherDevelopmentofDirectSelfControlforApplicationinElectricTraction_1996,
  author = {Steimel, A. and Wiesemann, J.},
  title = {Further Development of Direct Self Control for Application in Electric Traction},
  booktitle = {IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE'96)},
  year = {1996},
  pages = {180-185}
}
Steimel, A. and Wu, X.Q. Hochdynamische Leistungsregelung eines dreiphasigen Hochleistungsnetzstromrichters zur Speisung von Gleichspannungszwischenkreisen 1997 Electrical Engineering / Archiv für Elektrotechnik
Vol. 80, pp. 191-197 
article  
Abstract: In dieser Arbeit wird ein neues Regelungsverfahren für U-Netzstromrichter sehr hoher Leistung beschrieben. Die Einspeisungsschaltung besteht aus zwei GTO-Dreipunktstromrichtern, die über Dreiwicklungstransformatoren mit in Stern bzw. Dreieck geschalteten Sekundärwicklungen ans Netz geschaltet sind. Für den Betrieb als Netzstromrichter wird eine Steuerstrategie entwickelt, wobei eine möglichst geringe Verzerrung der netzseitigen Spannung unter Einhaltung der geringen zulässigen Schaltfrequenz der Ventile das Ziel ist. Die Regelung für netzfreundlichen hochdynamischen Energieaustausch zwischen Netz und Zwischenkreis ist auf der Basis der sogenannten Stromrichterflußbahn konzipiert.

Highly dynamic Control for a three-phase high Power AC/DC Converter

This paper describes the implementation of a new control approach for a high power three-phase AC/DC converter. The converter consists of two three-level inverters connected to the line via a three-winding transformer with the secondaries connected in star and delta. The control scheme is developed to minimise the network distortion voltage while keeping the small permitted switching frequency of the valves. The control for highly dynamic exchange of energy between the network and the dc link voltage is proposed on the basis of the converter voltage space vector integral.

BibTeX:
@article{SteimelWu:HochdynamischeLeistungsregelungeinesdreiphasigenHochleistungsnetzstromrichterszurSpeisungvonGleichspannungszwischenkreisen_1997,
  author = {Steimel, A. and Wu, X. Q.},
  title = {Hochdynamische Leistungsregelung eines dreiphasigen Hochleistungsnetzstromrichters zur Speisung von Gleichspannungszwischenkreisen},
  journal = {Electrical Engineering / Archiv für Elektrotechnik},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {80},
  pages = {191-197}
}
Stichweh, H., Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. Aktive und Passive Dämpfung von Schwingungen in Walzwerksantriebssystemen 2004 VFWH-AW 133  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StichwehSourkounisBeck:AktiveundPassiveDaempfungvonSchwingungeninWalzwerksantriebssystemen_2004,
  author = {Stichweh, H. and Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Aktive und Passive Dämpfung von Schwingungen in Walzwerksantriebssystemen},
  booktitle = {VFWH-AW 133},
  year = {2004}
}
Stichweh, H., Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. Selbsteinstellender zustandsgeregelter Asynchronantrieb mit lebensdauererhöhender aktiver Schwingungsdämpfung; Teil 2 2001 FVA-Informationstagung  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StichwehSourkounisBeck:SelbsteinstellenderzustandsgeregelterAsynchronantriebmitlebensdauererhoehenderaktiverSchwingungsdaempfung;Teil2_2001,
  author = {Stichweh, H. and Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Selbsteinstellender zustandsgeregelter Asynchronantrieb mit lebensdauererhöhender aktiver Schwingungsdämpfung; Teil 2},
  booktitle = {FVA-Informationstagung},
  year = {2001}
}
Stichweh, H., Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. Selbsteinstellender zustandsgeregelter Asynchronantrieb mit lebensdauererhöhender aktiver Schwingungsdämpfung; Teil 1 2000 FVA-Informationstagung  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StichwehSourkounisBeck:SelbsteinstellenderzustandsgeregelterAsynchronantriebmitlebensdauererhoehenderaktiverSchwingungsdaempfung;Teil1_2000,
  author = {Stichweh, H. and Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Selbsteinstellender zustandsgeregelter Asynchronantrieb mit lebensdauererhöhender aktiver Schwingungsdämpfung; Teil 1},
  booktitle = {FVA-Informationstagung},
  year = {2000}
}
Stichweh, H., Sourkounis, C., Beck, H.-P. and Zenner, H. Optimierung des Betriebsverhaltens von mechatronischen Systemen mittels einer selbsteinstellenden PI-Zustandsregelung 2002 75. Tagung des Wissenschaftlichen Rates der AIF  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{StichwehSourkounisBeckZenner:OptimierungdesBetriebsverhaltensvonmechatronischenSystemenmittelseinerselbsteinstellendenPI-Zustandsregelung_2002,
  author = {Stichweh, H. and Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. and Zenner, H.},
  title = {Optimierung des Betriebsverhaltens von mechatronischen Systemen mittels einer selbsteinstellenden PI-Zustandsregelung},
  booktitle = {75. Tagung des Wissenschaftlichen Rates der AIF},
  year = {2002}
}
Tulbure, A., Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. Induction Machine with Active Working-Cage Controller 2002 Speedam  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{TulbureSourkounisBeck:InductionMachinewithActiveWorking-CageController_2002,
  author = {Tulbure, A. and Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Induction Machine with Active Working-Cage Controller},
  booktitle = {Speedam},
  year = {2002}
}
Vodyakho, O., Hackstein, D., Steimel, A. and Kim, T. Novel Direct Current-Space-Vector Control for Shunt Active Power Filters Based on Three-Level Inverters 2008 Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), pp. 1868-1873  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{VodyakhoHacksteinSteimelKim:NovelDirectCurrent-Space-VectorControlforShuntActivePowerFiltersBasedonThree-LevelInverters_2008,
  author = {Vodyakho, O. and Hackstein, D. and Steimel, A. and Kim, T.},
  title = {Novel Direct Current-Space-Vector Control for Shunt Active Power Filters Based on Three-Level Inverters},
  booktitle = {Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC)},
  year = {2008},
  pages = {1868-1873}
}
Voss, L., Steimel, A. and Luerick, R. Transient performance and design issues for a parallel-connected voltage sag and outage compensator 1999 8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A compensator is presented for mitigation of voltage sags and outages in industrial power systems.The system is based on a commercial Power Conditioner and is appropriate for load ratings from 100 kVA up to several MVA. Transient performance is investigated by simulation and with a 10 kVA lab prototype. Design issues and a discussion of the required fault detection scheme are presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{VossSteimelLuerick:Transientperformanceanddesignissuesforaparallel-connectedvoltagesagandoutagecompensator_1999,
  author = {Voss, L. and Steimel, A. and Luerick, R.},
  title = {Transient performance and design issues for a parallel-connected voltage sag and outage compensator},
  booktitle = {8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {1999}
}
Voss, L.D., Steimel, A. and Gierse, G. Line-Commutated Shunt-Connected Converter Topology for a SMES-based UPS System 2002 ETG-Workshop USV-Anlagen  inproceedings  
Abstract: A SMES presents an economical energy storage medium for short-term protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags and outages. A power electronics grid interface for a SMES based on a thyristor converter with clamp valves is presented. The SMES converter is integrated within a shunt-connected UPS system. The principles of operation of the line-commutated interface and the special requirements for

operation without the grid supply are discussed. The concept has been verified with a 30 kW laboratory prototype.

BibTeX:
@inproceedings{VossSteimelGierse:Line-CommutatedShunt-ConnectedConverterTopologyforaSMES-basedUPSSystem_2002,
  author = {Voss, L. D. and Steimel, A. and Gierse, G.},
  title = {Line-Commutated Shunt-Connected Converter Topology for a SMES-based UPS System},
  booktitle = {ETG-Workshop USV-Anlagen},
  year = {2002}
}
Wörner, K., Steimel, A. and Hoffmann, F. Highly Dynamic Stator Flux Track Length Control for High Power IGBT Inverter Traction Drives 1999 8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: A control scheme for high power IGBT traction inverter drives with dynamic torque guidance suitable for low switching frequency is presented. Contrasting known synchronous Pulse Width Modulation Track Length Control derives the switching commands from comparing stator flux instantaneous values with controllable thresholds, which results in robust and highly dynamic behaviour. Characteristics are explained and verified by measurements.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WoernerSteimelHoffmann:HighlyDynamicStatorFluxTrackLengthControlforHighPowerIGBTInverterTractionDrives_1999,
  author = {Wörner, K. and Steimel, A. and Hoffmann, F.},
  title = {Highly Dynamic Stator Flux Track Length Control for High Power IGBT Inverter Traction Drives},
  booktitle = {8th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {1999}
}
Würflinger, K., Foerth, C. and Steimel, A. Reduction of interference currents in dc traction inverter drives using the highly dynamic torque control 2003 10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: In order to eliminate interference currents up to 120 Hz from the dc-line current of traction drives, the existing highly dynamic torque control (Siemens Traction Control - SITRAC [1]) is used. No extra hardware is needed and the control system structure keeps clearly arranged.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WuerflingerFoerthSteimel:Reductionofinterferencecurrentsindctractioninverterdrivesusingthehighlydynamictorquecontrol_2003a,
  author = {Würflinger, K. and Foerth, C. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Reduction of interference currents in dc traction inverter drives using the highly dynamic torque control},
  booktitle = {10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2003}
}
Wenske, J., Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P. Elektronische Synchronmaschine zur Energiekonditionierung in Verteilnetzen mit hohem Windenergieanteil 1998 4th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK, pp. 142-146  inproceedings  
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WenskeSourkounisBeck:ElektronischeSynchronmaschinezurEnergiekonditionierunginVerteilnetzenmithohemWindenergieanteil_1998,
  author = {Wenske, J. and Sourkounis, C. and Beck, H.-P.},
  title = {Elektronische Synchronmaschine zur Energiekonditionierung in Verteilnetzen mit hohem Windenergieanteil},
  booktitle = {4th German Wind Energy Conference DEWEK},
  year = {1998},
  pages = {142-146}
}
Wrede, H., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. A Soft-Switched Dual Active Bridge 3DC-to-1DC Converter employed in a High-Voltage Electronic Power Transformer 2003 10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)  inproceedings  
Abstract: The analysis of a soft-switched dual active bridge 3DC-to-1DC converter, employed in a cascaded-converter-based high-voltage electronic power transformer is presented. For the design of a single-phase transformer, its kVA rating and utilization are derived, due to phase shift and zero-voltage switching conditions. In the transformer utilization-vs-kVA-rating plane an optimal transformer design point can be found and the design of a single-phase cable-wound transformer with a rated power of 1,66MW and 1 kHz operating frequency for a 3x16,6kV-DC-to-1x9,6kV-DC conversion is presented.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WredeStaudtSteimel:ASoft-SwitchedDualActiveBridge3DC-to-1DCConverteremployedinaHigh-VoltageElectronicPowerTransformer_2003,
  author = {Wrede, H. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {A Soft-Switched Dual Active Bridge 3DC-to-1DC Converter employed in a High-Voltage Electronic Power Transformer},
  booktitle = {10th European Power Electronic Conference (EPE)},
  year = {2003}
}
Wrede, H., Staudt, V. and Steimel, A. Design of an Electronic Power Transformer 2002 28th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronic Society (IECON´02)  inproceedings  
Abstract: For the distribution of electrical energy in Germany, application-specific transformers with ratings of 110/20kV, 110/10kV, 40MVA, 50Hz are typically in operation. Due to their weight, these transformers can only be transported with great expense (usually by rail). Therefore a considerable number of reserve transformers has to be held in stock in each distribution area, to guarantee power reliability to utility customers by quick replacement. To reduce assets, an universal, mobile and flexible (adjustable to different medium-voltage levels and truck movable) transformer reserve unit is desired by utility companies. The modular design of an electronic power transformer for this purpose is given in this paper. Based on power electronics, additional features like fast voltage regulation, reactive power compensation, ride-through capability etc. are described.
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{WredeStaudtSteimel:DesignofanElectronicPowerTransformer_2002,
  author = {Wrede, H. and Staudt, V. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Design of an Electronic Power Transformer},
  booktitle = {28th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronic Society (IECON´02)},
  year = {2002}
}
Wu, X.Q. and Steimel, A. Direct Self Control of Induction Machines Fed by a Double Three-Level Inverter 1997 Transactions on Industrial Electronics
Vol. 44(4), pp. 519-528 
article  
Abstract: For drives with very high power and extreme demand on the quality of torque a novel concept of feeding an induction machine with open windings by two GTO three-level inverters is investigated. For optimal operation with the restricted switching frequency of these high power inverters Direct Self Control (DSC) is mostly suited which is well proved with two-level and three-level inverters in traction allowing a highly dynamic control of the induction machine. In comparison with two-level and three-level inverters torque ripple and distortion of motor currents are efficiently reduced, while maintaining the excellent dynamic qualities of DSC.

Direkte Selbstregelung von Induktionsmaschinen am GTO-Doppel-Dreipunktwechselrichter

Für Antriebe sehr großer Leistung mit extremen Anforderungen an die Güte des Drehmoments wird als neuartiges Konzept die Speisung einer Induktionsmaschine in "offener Motorschaltung" über zwei GTO-Dreipunktwechselrichter vorgeschlagen. Zum optimalen Betrieb bei stark eingeschränkter Ventil-Schaltfrequenz bietet sich das von M. Depenbrock entwickelte Verfahren der Direkte Selbstregelung an, das sich bei Zweipunkt- und Dreipunktwechselrichtern bereits bewährt hat und eine hochdynamische Regelung von Induktionsmaschinen gestattet. Auf dieser Basis wird das Verfahren für Doppel-Dreipunktwechselrichter weiter entwickelt. Im Vergleich zu Zweipunkt- und Dreipunktwechselrichtern wird eine wesentliche Verringerung der Drehmoment-Toleranzbandbreite und der Verzerrung des Ständerstroms bei weiterhin ausgezeichneter Dynamik erzielt

BibTeX:
@article{WuSteimel:DirectSelfControlofInductionMachinesFedbyaDoubleThree-LevelInverter_1997,
  author = {Wu, X. Q. and Steimel, A.},
  title = {Direct Self Control of Induction Machines Fed by a Double Three-Level Inverter},
  journal = {Transactions on Industrial Electronics},
  year = {1997},
  volume = {44},
  number = {4},
  pages = {519-528}
}